Ola Olapade

February 5th, 2019

Olapade, O. A., & Rasmussen, L. (2019). Effects of iron and copper treatments on the bacterioplankton assemblages from surface waters along the north branch of the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, USA. Journal of Basic Microbiology.

Abstract: The effects of varying concentrations (ranging from 0 to 10 μM) of two different metals that is, iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) on indigenous bacterial populations and their hydrolytic enzyme activities within the bacterioplankton assemblages from the surface waters of the Kalamazoo River were examined under controlled microcosm conditions. The two metals were added to water samples collected from the Kalamazoo River and examined for bacterial abundance and leucine aminopeptidase activities at various time intervals over a 48 h incubation period in the dark. Results revealed no concentration effects on the bacterial populations in the presence of both Fe and Cu, although the bacterial numbers varied significantly over time in both microcosms. Conversely, leucine aminopeptidase activities based on post-hoc tests using Bonferroni correction revealed significant differences to increasing concentrations of both metals over the study period. These results further validate previous knowledge regarding the importance of various metal ions in regulating bacterial community structures and also suggest that aminopeptidase have the potential of effectively functioning using diverse trace and heavy metals as extracellular peptidase cofactors in aquatic systems.

Albion College Student Co-Author: Lauren Rasmussen, ’17

Mareike Wieth and Andrea Francis

February 4th, 2019

Wieth, M. B., & Francis, A. P. (2018). Conflicts and Consistencies in Creativity Research and Teaching. Teaching of Psychology, 45(4), 363-370.

Abstract: The interdisciplinary topic of creativity is both fascinating and controversial. In this review, we begin by highlighting the many ways that researchers conceptualize and define creativity, focusing in particular on the difference between everyday creativity and creativity associated with exceptional breakthroughs in thinking. In addition, we discuss the role of divergent and convergent creativity and the role that domain knowledge plays in creativity. Furthermore, we highlight how specific factors such as individual differences and time of day influence creativity. We conclude by discussing the impact of current educational practices on creativity in psychology classrooms.

Holly Sheets

February 4th, 2019

Sheets, H. A., Jacob, L., Cowan, N. B., & Deming, D. (2018). A Search for Refraction in Kepler Photometry of Gas Giants. Research Notes of the AAS, 2(3).

Brad Chase

February 4th, 2019

Gadekar, C., Rajesh, S. V., Abhayan, G. S., Sharma, B. P., Ajithprasad, P., Chase, B., & al, e. (2018). Typo-Technological Analysis of the Lithic Assemblage from Janan – a Pre-Urban Harappan Site in Kachchh, Gujarat. Man and Environment, XLIII(1), 6-15.

Abstract: Though the concept of Harappan homogeneity along with regional diversity is now a well established fact, still the development and spread of Harappan civilization is a puzzle to be solved. Recent explorations at the site of Janan, situated on the Khadir island of Kachchh district of Gujarat have brought to light significant evidence of Early Harappan period. The discovery of Pre-Prabhas pottery, Anarta pottery, Pre Urban Harappan Sindh pottery, Rohri chert blades and other important artefacts give evidence of contact between Kachchh, North Gujarat, Saurashtra and Sindh, Pakistan before the Integration era of Indus Civilization which is important since till date Datrana, situated in North Gujarat and Prabhas Patan (Somnath) in Saurashtra have given similar evidences. This paper is a comprehensive analysis of the lithic assemblage recovered from the site which gives evidence of crested guiding ridge technique being used for the blade manufacturing process in terms of presence of blades as well as cores which show crested ridges running along their longer axis. The presence of Rohri chert blade fragments without any lithic debitage of the same raw material strongly suggests that these blades were imported to the site. These findings are vital in establishing link between Sindh and Gujarat during Regionalization era of Harappan civilization.

Dan Skean

February 4th, 2019

Michelangeli, F. A., Goldenberg, R., Almeda, F., Judd, W. S., Bécquer, E. R., Ocampo, G., . . . Penneys, D. S. (2018). Nomenclatural novelties in Miconia (Melastomataceae: Miconieae). Brittonia.

Abstract: The Miconieae (Melastomaceae) are a strictly Neotropical group comprising over 1900 species. The tribe is characterized by inflorescences that are terminal or axillary, but not cauliflorous (except a few species of Charianthus, Clidemia, and Mecranium), flowers subtended by only one pair of bracteoles (or none at all), with anthers that lack a pedoconnective, leaves without long acicular raphides, and berry fruits. Generic delimitations within the Miconieae have been notoriously complex, and phylogenetic analyses have shown that Miconia is paraphyletic with many other genera embedded within it. These nested genera include Anaectocalyx, Calycogonium, Catocoryne, Charianthus, Clidemia, Conostegia, Killipia, Leandra, Maieta, Mecranium, Necramium, Ossaea, Pachyanthus, Pleiochiton, Sagraea, Tetrazygia, and Tococa. In the absence of a workable solution that allows the subdivision of the tribe into smaller, morphologically recognizable and monophyletic genera, it has been previously proposed that only one genus be recognized in the tribe. Here we present the necessary taxonomic and nomenclatural changes necessary to recognize Miconia as the sole genus within Miconieae.

Carrie Booth Walling

January 23rd, 2019

Walling, C. B. (2018). Insights on victim testimony and transitional justice: A response to Angelina Snodgrass Godoy. Journal of Human Rights, 17(3), 384-391.

Matthew Schoene

January 23rd, 2019

Schoene, M. (2018). European disintegration? Euroscepticism and Europe’s rural/urban divide. European Politics and Society, 1-17.

Abstract: Euroscepticism has been a persistent part of the European integration process over the last several decades (Usherwood and Startin [2013]. Euroscepticism as a persistent phenomenon. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 51, 1?16). Scholars have proposed various theories to explain resistance to integration by drawing upon economic, political and cultural theories. In this paper, I ask whether Euroscepticism is a by-product of rural-urban divisions, which influences one’s perception of the economy, one?s trust of transnational politics and one’s cultural identity. However, geographical variables have never been tested in the presence of these more well-established Euroscepticism predictors. Here, I use the European Social Survey to compare the predictive power of economic, political, cultural and geographical variables on two forms of Euroscepticism: trust in European Parliament and the belief that integration has gone too far. Multilevel mixed-effects regression models demonstrate that trust in the European Parliament is indeed higher in big cities, but overall, place of residence is not a strong predictor of Euroscepticism. Among other theories, I find that cultural variables are more meaningful than economics or politics. I finally conclude with a discussion of the EU’s future.

Brad Rabquer, Craig Streu and Paul Anderson

January 23rd, 2019

Heitman, K., Rabquer, B., Heitman, E., Streu, C., & Anderson, P. (2018). The Use of Lavender Aromatherapy to Relieve Stress in Trailered Horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 63, 8-12.

Abstract: Competition horses are susceptible to high stress levels. Lavender aromatherapy (LA) is legal, has the potential to reduce stress, and is a relatively unexplored area of equine physiology. We hypothesis that LA has positive effects on helping horses cope with stress. We predict that these effects can be measured in lowered cortisol, norepinephrine, and heart rate levels in horses that have been subjected to lavender aromatherapy during a stressor. Eight horses were used in a crossover study and were transported for 15 minutes in a horse trailer. During the trailer ride (stressor), the horses received water aromatherapy as the control, and LA as the treatment. Three measurements of heart rates and blood draws were taken on each horse: (1) baseline—before loading into the trailer, (2) stressed—immediately after the trailer ride, and (3) recovery—50 minutes after the trailer ride. The blood samples were used to quantify serum cortisol levels. In both the control and treatment horses, the average difference between the baseline and stressed measurements of heart rate (HR) and cortisol increased when the horses were transported (control HR = 10.6 b/m ± 2.6 standard error [SE]; treatment HR = 9.3 b/m ± 2.6 SE; control cortisol = 3,747.2 pg/uL ± 864.2 SE; treatment cortisol = 2,511.8 pg/uL ± 1009.9 SE). In the control and treatment horses, there was no difference in the HRs of the control and treatment horses (P-value = .37); there was a difference in cortisol levels (P = .038), which provides evidence to conclude that cortisol levels were lower in horses that were subjected to LA during a stressor.

Albion College Student Co-Author: Kylie Heitman, ’17

Scott Melzer

January 23rd, 2019

Melzer, S. (2018). Manhood Impossible: Men’s Struggles to Control and Transform their Bodies and Work. Camden: Rutgers University Press.

 

Jocelyn McWhirter

January 2nd, 2019

McWhirter, J. (2018). Messianic Exegesis in the Fourth Gospel. In B. Reynolds & G. Boccaccini (Eds.), Reading the Gospel of John’s Christology as Jewish Messianism: Royal, Prophetic, and Divine Messiahs (pp. 124-148). Leiden: Brill.

Abstract: Early Christians searched the scriptures to find meaning in Jesus’ death. According to Donald Juel, their findings emerged from “messianic exegesis.” Following the rule of gezerah shewah, they interpreted passages reminiscent of Jesus in light of acknowledged messianic texts. This study focuses on twelve explicit christological citations in the Fourth Gospel: Exod. 12:46; Pss 22:18; 34:20; 41:9; 69:4, 9, 21; 118:25–26; Isa 6:10; 40:3; 53:1; and Zech. 9:9; 12:10. Johannine exegetes could have used “messianic exegesis” to justify interpreting them as prophecies about Jesus. The evidence that suggests that they did. Psalms 22; 69; 118 and Isa. 52:13—53:12—standard Christian proof texts—can be interpreted in light of a messianic psalm, Ps. 89. Messianic exegesis extends from them to Exod. 12; Pss. 34; 41; 118; Isa. 6:1–10; and Zech. 9:9; 12:0. John’s tandem quotations share significant catchwords, with each other and with Ps. 22. Furthermore, John’s narrative emphasizes catchwords like come, eyes, see, hate, lift up, and glorify. Apparently, John has searched the scriptures and found a Messiah who comes into the world, opening blind eyes but hated by those who cannot see. In the end, he is lifted up and glorified—on a Roman cross.

Dan Skean

January 2nd, 2019

Majure, L. C., Skean, J. D., Neubig, K. M., & Judd, W. S. (2018). Miconia clasei, a New Species of Miconia sect. Calycodomatia (Miconieae: Melastomataceae) from the Sierra de Bahoruco, Dominican Republic and a Closer Look at Species Relationships in the Sandpaper Clade. Systematic Botany, 43(2), 430-438.

Abstract: Recent collections in the Sierra de Bahoruco represent a previously undescribed species of Miconia sect. Calycodomatia from the Greater Antillean Sandpaper clade. We herein describe the new species as Miconia clasei, provide a phylogenetic analysis to determine close relatives, and compare it morphologically with its closest relatives and phenetically similar taxa. We also expand on previous analyses of the Sandpaper clade, including more individuals per species than previously analyzed, and two taxa never before analyzed phylogenetically. We show that several species within the Sandpaper clade are indeed cladospecies, while others appear to be non-monophyletic.

Brad Chase

January 2nd, 2019

Chase, B. (2018). Family Matters in Harappan Gujarat. In D. Frenez, G. M. Jamison, R. W. Law, M. Vidale & R. H. Meadow (Eds.), Walking with the Unicorn: Social Organization and Material Culture in Ancient South Asia (pp. 104-119). Oxford: Archaeopress Archaeology.

Abstract: Families and the practices of kinship through which they are constructed and reproduced have been central to Mark Kenoyer’s interpretive approach to the archaeology of the Indus Civilization (2600-1900 BC). The recognition that different Indus craft technologies were likely undertaken and controlled by differently organized families independent of centralized political control, for example, has been deeply influential in subsequent discussions of Indus social dynamics. In this contribution, I apply and build upon these insights to explore the social implications of kinship practices in Harappan Gujarat. The model developed here proposes that kinship practices instrumentally structured movement of people, goods, and wealth within and beyond the region. Specifically, it suggests that resource owning, labor controlling, exogamous descent groups may have been the major source of authority at walled settlements in Harappan Gujarat. The marriage practices of families organized in this way would have further structured material transfers consistent with the observed distribution of Harappan material culture as well as aspects of the pastoral economy in the region. While this perspective is necessarily speculative at present, it nevertheless productively suggests specific hypotheses amendable to evaluation with empirical evidence going forward.

Nicolle Zellner

November 28th, 2018

Zellner, N. E. B. (2018). Video killed the writing assignment. The Physics Teacher, 56(9), 646-647.

Heather Jordon

November 28th, 2018

Jordon, H., & Newkirk, G. (2018). 4-Cycle decompositions of complete 3-uniform hypergraphs. Australasian Journal of Combinatorics, 71(2), 312-323.

Abstract: A 3-uniform complete hypergraph of order n has vertex set {1, 2, . . . , n} and, as its edge set, the set of all possible subsets of size 3. A 4-cycle in this hypergraph is v1, e1, v2, e2, v3, e3, v4, e4, v1 where {v1, v2, v3, v4} are distinct vertices and {e1, e2, e3, e4} are distinct 3-edges such that vi, vi+1 ei for i = 1, 2,3 and v4, v1 e4 (also known as a Berge cycle). A decomposition of a hypergraph is a partition of its edge set into edge-disjoint subsets. In this paper, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a decomposition of the complete 3-uniform hypergraph of order n into 4-cycles.

Lynn Verduzco-Baker

November 9th, 2018

Verduzco-Baker, L. (2018). Modified Brave Spaces: Calling in Brave Instructors. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 4(4), 585-592.

Abstract: In recent years, instructors teaching about controversial issues such as race and ethnicity have drawn increasingly on the ideas of “safe” and “brave” spaces to encourage and facilitate dialogue during class discussion. Unfortunately, these concepts have limits when taken out of the dialogic social justice workshop and course contexts where they were initially developed—contexts with very different power dynamics than those in conventional college classrooms. I review these differences and their limits, then propose an alternate set of strategies to better adapt the “brave space” concept to conventional, disciplinary-specific, academic courses. Specifically, I urge instructors to avoid relying on marginalized students to publicly share personal experiences of oppression, to practice “calling in” which offers a productive way to challenge problematic beliefs or statements in the classroom, and to model being “brave” in their own responses when they are “called in” themselves. These strategies aim to give instructors more confidence in their ability to handle difficult conversations, while ensuring they do not burden some students or allow others to appropriate the language of “safety” to avoid challenges.

David Reimann

November 9th, 2018

Reimann, D. (2018). Visualizing Symmetry Subgroup Structures Using Simple Motifs. Proceedings of Bridges 2018: Mathematics, Art, Music, Architecture, Education, Culture, 363-366.

Abstract: Symmetric patterns can be understood mathematically as the resulting action of a symmetry group on a base motif. In each symmetry group, all its elements can be represented by transformation matrices. Using the subgroup structure of a base symmetry group, patterns can be created that have some integration into the overall symmetry. Examples of this process are shown for two dihedral groups and a wallpaper group.

Abigail Cahill

October 4th, 2018

Cahill, A. E., Pearman, J. K., Borja, A., Carugati, L., Carvalho, S., Danovaro, R., et al. (2018). A comparative analysis of metabarcoding and morphology-based identification of benthic communities across different regional seas. Ecology and Evolution, 8(17), 8908-8920.

Abstract: In a world of declining biodiversity, monitoring is becoming crucial. Molecular methods, such as metabarcoding, have the potential to rapidly expand our knowledge of biodiversity, supporting assessment, management, and conservation. In the marine environment, where hard substrata are more difficult to access than soft bottoms for quantitative ecological studies, Artificial Substrate Units (ASUs) allow for standardized sampling. We deployed ASUs within five regional seas (Baltic Sea, Northeast Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Red Sea) for 12–26 months to measure the diversity and community composition of macroinvertebrates. We identified invertebrates using a traditional approach based on morphological characters, and by metabarcoding of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. We compared community composition and diversity metrics obtained using the two methods. Diversity was significantly correlated between data types. Metabarcoding of ASUs allowed for robust comparisons of community composition and diversity, but not all groups were successfully sequenced. All locations were significantly different in taxonomic composition as measured with both kinds of data. We recovered previously known regional biogeographical patterns in both datasets (e.g., low species diversity in the Black and Baltic Seas, affinity between the Bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean). We conclude that the two approaches provide complementary information and that metabarcoding shows great promise for marine monitoring. However, until its pitfalls are addressed, the use of metabarcoding in monitoring of rocky benthic assemblages should be used in addition to classical approaches rather than instead of them.

Vicki Baker

October 4th, 2018

Baker, V. L., Pifer, M. J., & Lunsford, L. G. (2018). Faculty development in liberal arts colleges: a look at divisional trends, preferences, and needs. Higher Education Research & Development, 1-16.

Abstract: This research explores faculty development through the lens of academic division as an important, career defining characteristic of the professoriate. Relying on data from a longitudinal, mixed-methods study, the authors examined faculty development trends and needed supports in a consortium of 13 liberal arts colleges (LACs). As part of this research, the authors feature the Alignment Framework for Faculty Development in Liberal Arts Colleges to help administrators, faculty developers, and faculty members situate faculty development efforts at the intersection of institutional goals and priorities and individual needs. Implications for research and practice are offered.

Craig Streu

September 24th, 2018

Rastogi, S. K., Zhao, Z. Z., Barrett, S. L., Shelton, S. D., Zafferani, M., Anderson, H. E., et al. (2018). Photoresponsive azo-combretastatin A-4 analogues. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 143, 1-7.

Abstract: Colchicine analogues in which an azo group is incorporated into a molecule containing the key pharmacophore of colchicine, have found particular utility as switchable tubulin binding chemotherapeutics. Combretastatin is a related compound containing a stilbene fragment that shows different bioactivity for the cis and trans isomers. We have performed cell assays on 17 new compounds structurally related to a previously reported azo-analogue of combretastatin. One of these compounds showed enhanced potency against HeLa (IC50 = 0.11 μM) and H157 cells (IC50 = 0.20 μM) for cell studies under 400 nm irradiation and the highest photoactivity (IC50 with irradiation/IC50 in dark = 550). We have performed docking and physicochemical studies of this new compound (7). Kinetic studies in water reveal a longer half-life for the cis isomer of 7 which may be one factor responsible for the better IC50 values in cell assays and the improved photoresponsive behavior.

Albion College Student Co-Author: Martima Zafferani, ’17

Holger Elischberger and Eric Hill

September 13th, 2018

Foster, S. D., Elischberger, H. B., & Hill, E. D. (2018). Examining the link between socioeconomic status and mental illness prejudice: The roles of knowledge about mental illness and empathy. Stigma and Health, 3(2), 139-151.

Abstract: Unlike people suffering from most physical afflictions, those with mental illness often face prejudice. This study examines the interplay of several key social and personal predictors of mental illness prejudice: SES, empathy, mental illness knowledge, and personal acquaintance with the mentally ill. As expected, analyses showed that higher subjective (although not objective) SES, lower levels of empathy, and lower levels of knowledge about mental illness all predicted increased prejudice against people suffering from clinical depression and nondescript mental illness—although not against people suffering from schizophrenia. Path analyses showed evidence for a mediating role of knowledge and empathy in the link between SES and prejudice. Implications of these findings for ways to diffuse mental illness prejudice are discussed.

Albion College Alumnus Co-Author: Stephen Foster, ’15

Nicolle Zellner

September 7th, 2018

Huang, Y.-H., Minton, D. A., Zellner, N. E. B., Hirabayashi, M., Richardson, J. E., & Fassett, C. I. (2018). No Change in the Recent Lunar Impact Flux Required Based on Modeling of Impact Glass Spherule Age Distributions. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(14), 6805-6813.

Abstract: The distributions of 40Ar/39Ar-derived ages of impact glass spherules in lunar regolith samples show an excess at <500 Ma relative to older ages. It has not been well understood whether this excess of young ages reflects an increase in the recent lunar impact flux or is due to a bias in the samples. We developed a model to simulate the production, transport, destruction, and sampling of lunar glass spherules. A modeled bias is seen when either (1) the simulated sampling depth is 10 cm, consistent with the typical depth from which Apollo soil samples were taken, or (2) when glass occurrence in the ejecta is limited to >10 crater radii from the crater, consistent with terrestrial microtektite observations. We suggest that the observed excess of young ages for lunar impact glasses is likely due to limitations of the regolith sampling strategy of the Apollo program, rather than reflecting a change in the lunar impact rate.

Andy Boyan

September 7th, 2018

McGloin, R., Wasserman, J., & Boyan, A. (2018). Model Matching Theory: A Framework for Examining the Alignment between Game Mechanics and Mental Models. Media and Communication, 6(2), 126-136.

Abstract: The primary aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review and elaboration of model matching and its theoretical propositions. Model matching explains and predicts individuals’ outcomes related to gameplay by focusing on the interrelationships among games’ systems of mechanics, relevant situations external to the game, and players’ mental models. Formalizing model matching theory in this way provides researchers a unified explanation for game-based learning, game performance, and related gameplay outcomes while also providing a theory-based direction for advancing the study of games more broadly. The propositions explicated in this article are intended to serve as the primary tenets of model matching theory. Considerations for how these propositions may be tested in future games studies research are discussed.

Ashley Miller

August 24th, 2018

Miller, A. (2018). Poetry, Media, and the Material Body: Autopoetics in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Cambridge, United Kingdom ; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Dan Skean

August 22nd, 2018

Skean, J. D., Judd, W. S., Majure, L. C., & Ionta, G. M. (2018). Recognition of Miconia sect. Sagraeoides (Melastomataceae: Miconieae) and associated nomenclatural changes. Brittonia.

Abstract: Recent phylogenetic studies incorporating DNA sequence data have corroborated the suspected non-monophyly of many currently recognized genera of tribe Miconieae (Melastomataceae), which includes about 1800 species restricted to the Neotropics. The genus Mecranium, comprising 24 species endemic to the Greater Antilles and their satellite islands, appears to be a monophyletic exception within the tribe. However, the continued recognition of Mecranium as a genus, at best, would render Miconia paraphyletic. The most practical solution to the problem of non-monophyletic circumscription of genera in the Miconieae is the recognition of a broadly defined Miconia, with the taxonomic recognition of its subclades as subgenera and sections. Here the Mecranium clade is recognized as a section within a broadly circumscribed Miconia, all recognized species are listed, and 26 new names and nomenclatural combinations are published. In addition, the section is described, and the phylogenetic relationships of its species are discussed briefly based on molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses.

Heather Jordon

May 24th, 2018

El-Zanati, S. I., Jongthawonwuth, U., Jordon, H., & Vanden Eynden, C. (2018). Decomposing the complete graph and the complete graph minus a 1-factor into copies of a graph G where G is the union of two disjoint cycles. European Journal of Combinatorics, 68, 120-131.

Abstract: Let G of order n be the vertex-disjoint union of two cycles. It is known that there exists a G-decomposition of Kv for all v ≡ 1 (mod 2n). If G is bipartite and x is a positive integer, it is also known that there exists a G-decomposition of Knx − I, where I is a 1-factor. If G is not bipartite, there exists a G-decomposition of Kn if n is odd, and of Kn − I, where I is a 1-factor, if n is even. We use novel extensions of the Bose construction for Steiner triple systems and some recent results on the Oberwolfach Problem to obtain a G-decomposition of Kv for all v ≡ n (mod 2n) when n is odd, unless G = C4C5 and v = 9. If G consists of two odd cycles and n ≡ 0 (mod 4), we also obtain a G-decomposition of Kv − I, for all v ≡ 0 (mod n), v ≠ 4n.

Zhen Li

May 2nd, 2018

Li, Z., & Liao, Q. (2018). Economic solutions to improve cybersecurity of governments and smart cities via vulnerability markets. Government Information Quarterly, 35(1), 151-160.

Abstract: Cities are becoming smarter and smarter. While the rapid progress in smart city technologies is changing cities and the lifestyle of the people, it creates also huge attack surfaces for potential cyber attacks. The potential vulnerabilities of smart city products and imminent attacks on smart city infrastructure and services will have significant consequences that can cause substantial economic and noneconomic losses, even chaos, to the cities and the people. In this paper we study alternative economic solutions ranging from incentive mechanisms to market-based solutions to motivate governments, smart product vendors, and vulnerability researchers and finders to improve the cybersecurity of smart cities and e-government. These solutions can be integrated into policy instruments in defending smart cities and e-governments against cyber attacks.

Brad Chase

May 2nd, 2018

Chase, B., Meiggs, D., Ajithprasad, P., & Slater, P. A. (2018). What is left behind: Advancing interpretation of pastoral land-use in Harappan Gujarat using herbivore dung to examine biosphere strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) variation. Journal of Archaeological Science, 92, 1-12.

Abstract:

The analysis of strontium isotopes in archaeologically preserved biological tissues is most productive when these can be compared to naturally occurring variation in strontium isotope ratios across the physical landscape. Such work is in its infancy in South Asia. Here, we report on the first attempt to monitor 87Sr/86Sr variation across the Indian state of Gujarat using herbivore dung. As it incorporates plant material from throughout an individual animal’s grazing range, herbivore dung averages local isotopic variation in palatable vegetation and is therefore an ideal material for use in studies involving domestic livestock. In our analysis of 125 dung samples from 38 sampling locations across the study area, 87Sr/86Sr values and geographic variation are commensurate with expectations based on regional geology. The values that we report are significantly different from those reported for both ecosystem elements and archaeological humans and livestock that have been published for other regions of the Indus Civilization (2600–1900 BC). No individual humans or livestock in these studies appear to have their origins in Gujarat. The present study further allows for more detailed interpretations of our previously published study of strontium isotope ratios in faunal remains from the walled Indus manufacturing center of Bagasra in Gujarat (Chase et al., 2014b). Specifically, it is now clear that while most livestock show very little movement within the period of enamel formation, their places of origin were scattered throughout central Saurashtra, adjacent to the site, suggesting that a portion of the livestock consumed at Bagasra were initially raised in the many small unexcavated villages in the area. There is little evidence for the procurement of livestock from further afield within the region and none for livestock originating outside the region. These results demonstrate that monitoring geographic 87Sr/86Sr variation using herbivore dung has the potential to significantly advance archaeological interpretation of livestock mobility in the past and is applicable anywhere that modern livestock graze on natural vegetation.

Betty Okwako

March 29th, 2018

Grace, B. L., Nawyn, S. J., & Okwako, B. (2018). The Right to Belong (If You Can Afford It): Market-based Restrictions on Social Citizenship in Refugee Resettlement. Journal of Refugee Studies, 31(1), 42-62.

Abstract: This article uses data from face-to-face interviews with recently resettled Burundian and Burmese refugees in Michigan to explore the concept of market citizenship. Market citizenship (Brodie 1997) is defined as the allocation of citizenship rights based on an individual’s economic power and participation in the labour market. While refugees have legal access to certain social rights, through the limitations of market citizenship, they are frequently denied access to those rights. Our data illustrates some ways in which that denial occurs, but also points to ways that refugees use family relations to circumnavigate the barriers to social citizenship that they frequently experience during the immediate resettlement period. Refugee families reassemble household configurations such that they increase the number of work-eligible household members, adjusting what we call the ‘neo-liberal citizenship ratio’. We argue that citizenship is broadly constrained by neo-liberalism, and that refugee families’ creative mobilization of familial and community relations are often the only avenue refugee households have to survive under neo-liberal constraints.

Heather Betz

March 27th, 2018

Betz, H. H., Eisenmann, J. C., Laurson, K. R., DuBose, K. D., Reeves, M. J., Carlson, J. J., et al. (2018). Physical Activity, BMI, and Blood Pressure in US Youth: NHANES 2003–2006. Pediatric Exercise Science, 1-8.

Abstract: Purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure in youth. Methods: Youth aged 8–18 years from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity (accelerometer) were included in the analyses. A total of 2585 subjects (1303 males; 47% of all 8- to 18-year-olds) met these criteria. Results: Obese youth had a systolic blood pressure that was 8 mm Hg higher than normal weight youth. A significant interaction between BMI and physical activity on blood pressure was found (P < .001), and group differences among the BMI/activity groups showed that the 3 obese groups and the overweight/least active group had significantly higher systolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group across all analyses. The overweight/least active and normal weight/least active groups had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group as well. Conclusions: This study showed a significant independent and combined association of BMI and physical activity with blood pressure in youth. Interventions need to focus on the reduction of fatness/BMI as a way to reduce the cardiovascular risk in youth.

Matthew Schoene

March 15th, 2018

Schoene, M. (2018). Urban Protest in the European Union. Ps-Political Science & Politics, 51(1), 73-78.