Abigail Cahill

October 4th, 2018

Cahill, A. E., Pearman, J. K., Borja, A., Carugati, L., Carvalho, S., Danovaro, R., et al. (2018). A comparative analysis of metabarcoding and morphology-based identification of benthic communities across different regional seas. Ecology and Evolution, 8(17), 8908-8920.

Abstract: In a world of declining biodiversity, monitoring is becoming crucial. Molecular methods, such as metabarcoding, have the potential to rapidly expand our knowledge of biodiversity, supporting assessment, management, and conservation. In the marine environment, where hard substrata are more difficult to access than soft bottoms for quantitative ecological studies, Artificial Substrate Units (ASUs) allow for standardized sampling. We deployed ASUs within five regional seas (Baltic Sea, Northeast Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Red Sea) for 12–26 months to measure the diversity and community composition of macroinvertebrates. We identified invertebrates using a traditional approach based on morphological characters, and by metabarcoding of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. We compared community composition and diversity metrics obtained using the two methods. Diversity was significantly correlated between data types. Metabarcoding of ASUs allowed for robust comparisons of community composition and diversity, but not all groups were successfully sequenced. All locations were significantly different in taxonomic composition as measured with both kinds of data. We recovered previously known regional biogeographical patterns in both datasets (e.g., low species diversity in the Black and Baltic Seas, affinity between the Bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean). We conclude that the two approaches provide complementary information and that metabarcoding shows great promise for marine monitoring. However, until its pitfalls are addressed, the use of metabarcoding in monitoring of rocky benthic assemblages should be used in addition to classical approaches rather than instead of them.

Vicki Baker

October 4th, 2018

Baker, V. L., Pifer, M. J., & Lunsford, L. G. (2018). Faculty development in liberal arts colleges: a look at divisional trends, preferences, and needs. Higher Education Research & Development, 1-16.

Abstract: This research explores faculty development through the lens of academic division as an important, career defining characteristic of the professoriate. Relying on data from a longitudinal, mixed-methods study, the authors examined faculty development trends and needed supports in a consortium of 13 liberal arts colleges (LACs). As part of this research, the authors feature the Alignment Framework for Faculty Development in Liberal Arts Colleges to help administrators, faculty developers, and faculty members situate faculty development efforts at the intersection of institutional goals and priorities and individual needs. Implications for research and practice are offered.

Craig Streu

September 24th, 2018

Rastogi, S. K., Zhao, Z. Z., Barrett, S. L., Shelton, S. D., Zafferani, M., Anderson, H. E., et al. (2018). Photoresponsive azo-combretastatin A-4 analogues. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 143, 1-7.

Abstract: Colchicine analogues in which an azo group is incorporated into a molecule containing the key pharmacophore of colchicine, have found particular utility as switchable tubulin binding chemotherapeutics. Combretastatin is a related compound containing a stilbene fragment that shows different bioactivity for the cis and trans isomers. We have performed cell assays on 17 new compounds structurally related to a previously reported azo-analogue of combretastatin. One of these compounds showed enhanced potency against HeLa (IC50 = 0.11 μM) and H157 cells (IC50 = 0.20 μM) for cell studies under 400 nm irradiation and the highest photoactivity (IC50 with irradiation/IC50 in dark = 550). We have performed docking and physicochemical studies of this new compound (7). Kinetic studies in water reveal a longer half-life for the cis isomer of 7 which may be one factor responsible for the better IC50 values in cell assays and the improved photoresponsive behavior.

Albion College Student Co-Author: Martima Zafferani, ’17

Holger Elischberger and Eric Hill

September 13th, 2018

Foster, S. D., Elischberger, H. B., & Hill, E. D. (2018). Examining the link between socioeconomic status and mental illness prejudice: The roles of knowledge about mental illness and empathy. Stigma and Health, 3(2), 139-151.

Abstract: Unlike people suffering from most physical afflictions, those with mental illness often face prejudice. This study examines the interplay of several key social and personal predictors of mental illness prejudice: SES, empathy, mental illness knowledge, and personal acquaintance with the mentally ill. As expected, analyses showed that higher subjective (although not objective) SES, lower levels of empathy, and lower levels of knowledge about mental illness all predicted increased prejudice against people suffering from clinical depression and nondescript mental illness—although not against people suffering from schizophrenia. Path analyses showed evidence for a mediating role of knowledge and empathy in the link between SES and prejudice. Implications of these findings for ways to diffuse mental illness prejudice are discussed.

Albion College Alumnus Co-Author: Stephen Foster, ’15

Nicolle Zellner

September 7th, 2018

Huang, Y.-H., Minton, D. A., Zellner, N. E. B., Hirabayashi, M., Richardson, J. E., & Fassett, C. I. (2018). No Change in the Recent Lunar Impact Flux Required Based on Modeling of Impact Glass Spherule Age Distributions. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(14), 6805-6813.

Abstract: The distributions of 40Ar/39Ar-derived ages of impact glass spherules in lunar regolith samples show an excess at <500 Ma relative to older ages. It has not been well understood whether this excess of young ages reflects an increase in the recent lunar impact flux or is due to a bias in the samples. We developed a model to simulate the production, transport, destruction, and sampling of lunar glass spherules. A modeled bias is seen when either (1) the simulated sampling depth is 10 cm, consistent with the typical depth from which Apollo soil samples were taken, or (2) when glass occurrence in the ejecta is limited to >10 crater radii from the crater, consistent with terrestrial microtektite observations. We suggest that the observed excess of young ages for lunar impact glasses is likely due to limitations of the regolith sampling strategy of the Apollo program, rather than reflecting a change in the lunar impact rate.

Andy Boyan

September 7th, 2018

McGloin, R., Wasserman, J., & Boyan, A. (2018). Model Matching Theory: A Framework for Examining the Alignment between Game Mechanics and Mental Models. Media and Communication, 6(2), 126-136.

Abstract: The primary aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review and elaboration of model matching and its theoretical propositions. Model matching explains and predicts individuals’ outcomes related to gameplay by focusing on the interrelationships among games’ systems of mechanics, relevant situations external to the game, and players’ mental models. Formalizing model matching theory in this way provides researchers a unified explanation for game-based learning, game performance, and related gameplay outcomes while also providing a theory-based direction for advancing the study of games more broadly. The propositions explicated in this article are intended to serve as the primary tenets of model matching theory. Considerations for how these propositions may be tested in future games studies research are discussed.

Ashley Miller

August 24th, 2018

Miller, A. (2018). Poetry, Media, and the Material Body: Autopoetics in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Cambridge, United Kingdom ; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Dan Skean

August 22nd, 2018

Skean, J. D., Judd, W. S., Majure, L. C., & Ionta, G. M. (2018). Recognition of Miconia sect. Sagraeoides (Melastomataceae: Miconieae) and associated nomenclatural changes. Brittonia.

Abstract: Recent phylogenetic studies incorporating DNA sequence data have corroborated the suspected non-monophyly of many currently recognized genera of tribe Miconieae (Melastomataceae), which includes about 1800 species restricted to the Neotropics. The genus Mecranium, comprising 24 species endemic to the Greater Antilles and their satellite islands, appears to be a monophyletic exception within the tribe. However, the continued recognition of Mecranium as a genus, at best, would render Miconia paraphyletic. The most practical solution to the problem of non-monophyletic circumscription of genera in the Miconieae is the recognition of a broadly defined Miconia, with the taxonomic recognition of its subclades as subgenera and sections. Here the Mecranium clade is recognized as a section within a broadly circumscribed Miconia, all recognized species are listed, and 26 new names and nomenclatural combinations are published. In addition, the section is described, and the phylogenetic relationships of its species are discussed briefly based on molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses.

Heather Jordon

May 24th, 2018

El-Zanati, S. I., Jongthawonwuth, U., Jordon, H., & Vanden Eynden, C. (2018). Decomposing the complete graph and the complete graph minus a 1-factor into copies of a graph G where G is the union of two disjoint cycles. European Journal of Combinatorics, 68, 120-131.

Abstract: Let G of order n be the vertex-disjoint union of two cycles. It is known that there exists a G-decomposition of Kv for all v ≡ 1 (mod 2n). If G is bipartite and x is a positive integer, it is also known that there exists a G-decomposition of Knx − I, where I is a 1-factor. If G is not bipartite, there exists a G-decomposition of Kn if n is odd, and of Kn − I, where I is a 1-factor, if n is even. We use novel extensions of the Bose construction for Steiner triple systems and some recent results on the Oberwolfach Problem to obtain a G-decomposition of Kv for all v ≡ n (mod 2n) when n is odd, unless G = C4C5 and v = 9. If G consists of two odd cycles and n ≡ 0 (mod 4), we also obtain a G-decomposition of Kv − I, for all v ≡ 0 (mod n), v ≠ 4n.

Zhen Li

May 2nd, 2018

Li, Z., & Liao, Q. (2018). Economic solutions to improve cybersecurity of governments and smart cities via vulnerability markets. Government Information Quarterly, 35(1), 151-160.

Abstract: Cities are becoming smarter and smarter. While the rapid progress in smart city technologies is changing cities and the lifestyle of the people, it creates also huge attack surfaces for potential cyber attacks. The potential vulnerabilities of smart city products and imminent attacks on smart city infrastructure and services will have significant consequences that can cause substantial economic and noneconomic losses, even chaos, to the cities and the people. In this paper we study alternative economic solutions ranging from incentive mechanisms to market-based solutions to motivate governments, smart product vendors, and vulnerability researchers and finders to improve the cybersecurity of smart cities and e-government. These solutions can be integrated into policy instruments in defending smart cities and e-governments against cyber attacks.

Brad Chase

May 2nd, 2018

Chase, B., Meiggs, D., Ajithprasad, P., & Slater, P. A. (2018). What is left behind: Advancing interpretation of pastoral land-use in Harappan Gujarat using herbivore dung to examine biosphere strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) variation. Journal of Archaeological Science, 92, 1-12.

Abstract:

The analysis of strontium isotopes in archaeologically preserved biological tissues is most productive when these can be compared to naturally occurring variation in strontium isotope ratios across the physical landscape. Such work is in its infancy in South Asia. Here, we report on the first attempt to monitor 87Sr/86Sr variation across the Indian state of Gujarat using herbivore dung. As it incorporates plant material from throughout an individual animal’s grazing range, herbivore dung averages local isotopic variation in palatable vegetation and is therefore an ideal material for use in studies involving domestic livestock. In our analysis of 125 dung samples from 38 sampling locations across the study area, 87Sr/86Sr values and geographic variation are commensurate with expectations based on regional geology. The values that we report are significantly different from those reported for both ecosystem elements and archaeological humans and livestock that have been published for other regions of the Indus Civilization (2600–1900 BC). No individual humans or livestock in these studies appear to have their origins in Gujarat. The present study further allows for more detailed interpretations of our previously published study of strontium isotope ratios in faunal remains from the walled Indus manufacturing center of Bagasra in Gujarat (Chase et al., 2014b). Specifically, it is now clear that while most livestock show very little movement within the period of enamel formation, their places of origin were scattered throughout central Saurashtra, adjacent to the site, suggesting that a portion of the livestock consumed at Bagasra were initially raised in the many small unexcavated villages in the area. There is little evidence for the procurement of livestock from further afield within the region and none for livestock originating outside the region. These results demonstrate that monitoring geographic 87Sr/86Sr variation using herbivore dung has the potential to significantly advance archaeological interpretation of livestock mobility in the past and is applicable anywhere that modern livestock graze on natural vegetation.

Betty Okwako

March 29th, 2018

Grace, B. L., Nawyn, S. J., & Okwako, B. (2018). The Right to Belong (If You Can Afford It): Market-based Restrictions on Social Citizenship in Refugee Resettlement. Journal of Refugee Studies, 31(1), 42-62.

Abstract: This article uses data from face-to-face interviews with recently resettled Burundian and Burmese refugees in Michigan to explore the concept of market citizenship. Market citizenship (Brodie 1997) is defined as the allocation of citizenship rights based on an individual’s economic power and participation in the labour market. While refugees have legal access to certain social rights, through the limitations of market citizenship, they are frequently denied access to those rights. Our data illustrates some ways in which that denial occurs, but also points to ways that refugees use family relations to circumnavigate the barriers to social citizenship that they frequently experience during the immediate resettlement period. Refugee families reassemble household configurations such that they increase the number of work-eligible household members, adjusting what we call the ‘neo-liberal citizenship ratio’. We argue that citizenship is broadly constrained by neo-liberalism, and that refugee families’ creative mobilization of familial and community relations are often the only avenue refugee households have to survive under neo-liberal constraints.

Heather Betz

March 27th, 2018

Betz, H. H., Eisenmann, J. C., Laurson, K. R., DuBose, K. D., Reeves, M. J., Carlson, J. J., et al. (2018). Physical Activity, BMI, and Blood Pressure in US Youth: NHANES 2003–2006. Pediatric Exercise Science, 1-8.

Abstract: Purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure in youth. Methods: Youth aged 8–18 years from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity (accelerometer) were included in the analyses. A total of 2585 subjects (1303 males; 47% of all 8- to 18-year-olds) met these criteria. Results: Obese youth had a systolic blood pressure that was 8 mm Hg higher than normal weight youth. A significant interaction between BMI and physical activity on blood pressure was found (P < .001), and group differences among the BMI/activity groups showed that the 3 obese groups and the overweight/least active group had significantly higher systolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group across all analyses. The overweight/least active and normal weight/least active groups had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group as well. Conclusions: This study showed a significant independent and combined association of BMI and physical activity with blood pressure in youth. Interventions need to focus on the reduction of fatness/BMI as a way to reduce the cardiovascular risk in youth.

Matthew Schoene

March 15th, 2018

Schoene, M. (2018). Urban Protest in the European Union. Ps-Political Science & Politics, 51(1), 73-78.

Jeffrey Carrier

March 15th, 2018

Pratt, H. L., Pratt, T. C., Morley, D., Lowerre-Barbieri, S., Collins, A., Carrier, J. C., Hart, K. M., Whitney, N. M. (2018). Partial migration of the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre), from the Dry Tortugas Islands. Environmental Biology of Fishes.

Abstract: Nurse sharks have not previously been known to migrate. Nurse sharks of the Dry Tortugas (DRTO) mating population have a highly predictable periodic residency cycle, returning to the Dry Tortugas Courtship and Mating Ground (DTCMG) annually (males) or bi- to triennially (females) during the June/July mating season. For 23 years we have followed the movements of 76 recaptured adults of a total of 115 tagged adults. Telemetry detections of 40 females tagged with acoustic transmitters show that most tagged and presumably post-partum females are continuously present in the DRTO in the fall, winter and early spring following the June mating season but these females depart in late March to early May. Detections reveal these females avoid the DTCMG completely during the next mating season, returning from late summer to fall. Telemetry records of nine of 17 adult males that co-habited with these females in the DTCMG depart DRTO waters every July. Both sexes may overwinter in the DRTO. Between 2011 and 2016 three males and five females with transmitters were detected to move up the west coast of Florida outside of the mating season as far north as the waters off Tampa Bay (335 km). Six others were only detected in the lower Florida Keys (292 km). Nine sharks returned to DRTO; one returned six times. Some overwintered and some resumed courtship in June, demonstrating both resident and migratory contingents within their population, partial migration and an ability to navigate with high spatial and temporal precision.

Albion College Alumnus Co-Author: Nick Whitney, ’00

Kevin Metz

February 16th, 2018

Dominguez, C., Metz, K. M., Hoque, M. K., Browne, M. P., Esteban-Tejeda, L., Livingston, C. K., et al. (2018). Continuous Flow Synthesis of Platinum Nanoparticles in Porous Carbon as Durable and Methanol-Tolerant Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction. Chemelectrochem, 5(1), 62-70.

Abstract:  The development and commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) as energy conversion devices remains a challenge despite their advantages in terms of energy density and energy-conversion efficiency. The bottleneck for the development of DMFCs is mainly caused by the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of fuel cells, and the effect of the so-called methanol crossover in state-of-the-art Pt/C electrocatalysts. Herein, we report for the first time an easily scalable continuous flow method based on ultraspray pyrolysis (USP) for the preparation of Pt nanoparticles directly embedded on highly porous carbon spheres. A study on the effect that post-synthesis treatment procedures have on the level of graphitization and catalytic properties is described. Use of USP results in a substantial reduction of the final Pt content with respect to typical Pt/C electrocatalysts, while yielding also excellent durability and tolerance to methanol crossover under acidic conditions. These results demonstrate that the USP method reported herein is a good candidate for its use in the preparation of ORR catalysts in commercial applications.

Albion College Student Co-Author: Corbin Livingston, ’16

Vicki Baker

February 7th, 2018

Crisp, G., Baker, V. L., Griffin, K. A., Lunsford, L. G., & Pifer, M. J. (2017). Mentoring Undergraduate Students. ASHE Higher Education Report, 43(1), 7-103.

 

 

Philip Voss

February 2nd, 2018

Cross, D. S., Pore, J. L., Andreoiu, C., Ball, G. C., Bender, P. C., Chester, A. S., et al. (2017). Conversion-electron spectroscopy and gamma-gamma angular correlation measurements in 116Sn. The European Physical Journal A, 53(11), 216.

Abstract:

The 116Sn nucleus was studied via the β   β− \beta^{-} decay of 116In utilizing the 8π  8\pi spectrometer and its auxiliary detectors at TRIUMF-ISAC. The resulting K-shell conversion coefficients, K/L ratios, and multipole mixing ratios are presented. The 2 + 3 2 + 1 931 23+→21+931 2_{3}^{+} \rightarrow 2_{1}^{+} 931 keV and 2 + 2 2 + 1 819 22+→21+819 2_{2}^{+} \rightarrow 2_{1}^{+} 819 keV transition mixing ratios were re-measured and found to be δ=+1.8 +0.7 0.5  δ=+1.8−0.5+0.7 \delta = +1.8_{-0.5}^{+0.7} and 1.83(8) −1.83(8) -1.83(8) , respectively. Newly measured mixing ratios for transitions among the low-lying I π =4 +  Iπ=4+ I^{\pi} = 4^{+} states in 116Sn, when combined with γ γ \gamma -ray intensity data, suggest that the 2529 keV 4 + 2  42+ 4_{2}^{+} state possesses a neutron broken-pair admixture in addition to its dominant proton 2p-2h component.

Geoffrey Cocks

February 2nd, 2018

Cocks, G. (2017). Fathers and Sons: The Kohut Odyssey. In R. Frie (Ed.), History Flows Through Us: Germany, the Holocaust and the Promise of Empathy. New York: Routledge.

 

Mareike Wieth

January 24th, 2018

DeCaro, M. S., Van Stockum, C. A., Jr., & Wieth, M. B. (2017). The relationship between working memory and insight depends on moderators: Reply to Chuderski and Jastrzêbski (2017). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 43(12), 2005-2010.

Abstract: Chuderski and Jastrzêbski (2017) found a positive relationship between working memory capacity and insight problem solving, and concluded that “people with less effective cognition” are therefore “less creative” (p. 2003). This interpretation discounts substantial evidence that devoting less executive control facilitates insight. We develop an initial framework for understanding these contradictory findings. We describe (a) how both working memory-demanding processes and less-demanding associative processes impact insight and (b) how individual, situational, and task-specific factors interact to influence whether greater working memory is a help or a hindrance. We propose that insight will be supported if the level of executive control used matches the level of control optimal for different phases of insight problem solving. We use this framework to explain why Chuderski and Jastrzębski’s (2017) findings may have differed from DeCaro, Van Stockum, and Wieth (2016), and offer direction for a more unified account of insight problem solving.

Ola Olapade and Ken Saville

January 24th, 2018

Hanauer, D. I., Graham, M. J., SEA-PHAGES, Betancur, L., Bobrownicki, A., Cresawn, S. G., et al. (2017). An inclusive Research Education Community (iREC): Impact of the SEA-PHAGES program on research outcomes and student learning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(51), 13531-13536.

Abstract: Engaging undergraduate students in scientific research promises substantial benefits, but it is not accessible to all students and is rarely implemented early in college education, when it will have the greatest impact. An inclusive Research Education Community (iREC) provides a centralized scientific and administrative infrastructure enabling engagement of large numbers of students at different types of institutions. The Science Education Alliance–Phage Hunters Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science (SEA-PHAGES) is an iREC that promotes engagement and continued involvement in science among beginning undergraduate students. The SEA-PHAGES students show strong gains correlated with persistence relative to those in traditional laboratory courses regardless of academic, ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic profiles. This persistent involvement in science is reflected in key measures, including project ownership, scientific community values, science identity, and scientific networking.

 

Joseph Ho

January 24th, 2018

Ho, J. W. (2017). Imaging Missions, Visualizing Experience: American Presbyterian Photography, Filmmaking, and Chinese Christianity in Interwar Republican China. In A. E. Clark (Ed.), China’s Christianity: From Mission to Indigenous Church. Leiden: Brill.

 

Vicki Baker

January 18th, 2018

Baker, V. L., Lunsford, L. G., & Pifer, M. J. (2017). Developing Faculty in Liberal Arts Colleges: Aligning Individual Needs and Organizational Goals. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Abstract:  Developing Faculty Members in Liberal Arts Colleges analyzes the career stage challenges these faculty members must overcome, such as a lack of preparation for teaching, limited access to resources and mentors, and changing expectations for excellence in teaching, research, and service to become academic leaders in their discipline and at these distinctive institutions.  Drawing on research conducted at the thirteen institutions of the Great Lakes Colleges Association, Vicki L. Baker, Laura Gail Lunsford, and Meghan J. Pifer propose a compelling Alignment Framework for Faculty Development in Liberal Arts Colleges to show how these colleges succeed—or sometimes fail—in providing their faculties with the right support to be successful.

Philip Voss

January 18th, 2018

Jigmeddorj, B., Garrett, P. E., Andreoiu, C. A., Ball, G. C., Bruhn, T., Cross, D. S., et al. (2017). High-Statistics β+/EC-Decay Study of 122Xe. Physics Procedia, 90(Supplement C), 435-439.

Abstract:  Low-lying excited states of 122Xe have been studied via the β+/EC decay of 122Cs with the 8π γ-ray spectrometer at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator and Accelerator facility. The data collected have enabled the observation of new in-band transitions in the excited 0+ state bands. In addition, the 2+ members of the second 0+ and third 0+ state bands have been firmly confirmed by angular correlation analysis.

Tammy Jechura

January 11th, 2018

Woodard, M. A., Jechura, T. J., & Elias, E. P. (2017). Sleep and College Satisfaction. North American Journal of Psychology, 19(3), 573-584.

Abstract: College students face a number of obstacles to achieving proper sleep hygiene and this could have an impact on their overall college experience, as much as on their day-to-day functioning. The current study was designed to assess the relationship between sleep and satisfaction with overall college experience. It was hypothesized that poorer sleep, including fewer hours of sleep and lower quality of sleep, would be correlated with a more negative view of one’s college experience. Students currently enrolled in a small midwestern college (n=74; 52 females) were assessed for sleep quantity and quality using a modified version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (adapted from Buysse et al., 1988). A second questionnaire, adapted from the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Index for Job Satisfaction (Brayfield & Rothe, 1951; Diener et al., 1985), was used to measure satisfaction with college experience. Results revealed that individuals with better sleep hygiene also had higher college satisfaction levels. Additionally, a mediational regression showed that mood mediates the relationship between sleep and college satisfaction. This implies that greater sleep disturbance leads to a more negative mood in students which, in turn, leads to less satisfaction with college experience.

Abigail Cahill

January 8th, 2018

Cahill, A. E., De Jode, A., Dubois, S., Bouzaza, Z., Aurelle, D., Boissin, E., et al. (2017). A multispecies approach reveals hot-spots and cold-spots of diversity and connectivity in invertebrate species with contrasting dispersal modes. Molecular Ecology, 26(23), 6563-6577.

Abstract: Genetic diversity is crucial for species’ maintenance and persistence, yet is often overlooked in conservation studies. Species diversity is more often reported due to practical constraints, but it is unknown if these measures of diversity are correlated. In marine invertebrates, adults are often sessile or sedentary and populations exchange genes via dispersal of gametes and larvae. Species with a larval period are expected to have more connected populations than those without larval dispersal. We assessed the relationship between measures of species and genetic diversity, and between dispersal ability and connectivity. We compiled data on genetic patterns and life history traits in nine species across five phyla. Sampling sites spanned 600 km in the northwest Mediterranean Sea and focused on a 50 km area near Marseilles, France. Comparative population genetic approaches yielded three main results. (1) Species without larvae showed higher levels of genetic structure than species with free-living larvae but the role of larval type (lecithotrophic or planktotrophic) was negligible. (2) A narrow area around Marseilles, subject to offshore advection, limited genetic connectivity in most species. (3) We identified sites with significant positive contributions to overall genetic diversity across all species, corresponding with areas near low human population densities. In contrast, high levels of human activity corresponded with a negative contribution to overall genetic diversity. Genetic diversity within species was positively and significantly linearly related with local species diversity. Our study suggests that local contribution to overall genetic diversity should be taken into account for future conservation strategies.

Holger Elischberger, Eric Hill and Lynn Verduzco-Baker

January 8th, 2018

Elischberger, H. B., Glazier, J. J., Hill, E. D., & Verduzco-Baker, L. (2018). Attitudes Toward and Beliefs about Transgender Youth: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Between the United States and India. Sex Roles, 78, 142-160.

Abstract: Using an internet-based survey, we examined attitudes toward transgender youth in the United States and India, two cultures with differences in conceptualizations of gender and treatment of transgender individuals in society, law, and religion. We found generally positive attitudes toward transgender youth in our U.S. (n = 218), but moderately negative ones in our Indian (n = 217), sample. Consistent with the literature on prejudice against transgender adults in many Western societies, general social conservatism in the form of religious beliefs and political ideology, gender-specific conservatism in the form of gender binary belief, and endorsement of environmental rather than biological causes of transgender identity were the best predictors of U.S. participants’ attitudes, although personal contact with gender and sexual minorities also played a role at the bivariate level. These findings suggest that the processes underlying prejudice against transgender youth are similar to those that foster adult-directed transphobia in that cultural context. In contrast, religion-based disapproval and environmental causal attributions were the best predictors of Indian respondents’ attitudes, whereas gender binary belief played only a minor role, and political conservatism and personal contact no role at all. Our regression analyses accounted for considerably more of the variability in U.S. than in Indian participants’ attitudes, highlighting the need for additional (qualitative) work to identify the factors that promote transprejudice in India. We discuss these findings in light of cross-cultural differences between the two countries in terms of our predictors and consider implications for efforts to reduce prejudice against transgender youth.

Albion College Student Co-Author: Jessica Glazier, ’16

Joseph Ho

November 17th, 2017

Charles, B., & Ho, J. W. (Eds.). (2017). War and occupation in China : the letters of an American missionary from Hangzhou, 1937-1938. Lanham, Maryland: Lehigh University Press.

Mareike Wieth

November 9th, 2017

Burns, B. D., Zhang, Y., Wieth, M., & Touyz, S. (2017). An exploratory study of creativity and eating disorders. Journal of Eating Disorders, 5(1), 45.

Abstract: We examined whether cognitive rigidity associated with having an eating disorder generalized to creativity. One hundred twelve participants from the participant pool of an Australian university were given a measure of disordered eating (EDE-Q), asked if they had ever had a diagnosis of an eating disorder (16 reported yes), and given 3 min to generate alternative uses for a paper-clip. The alternative uses task yielded measures of creative fluency, originality, elaboration and flexibility. A logistic regression found that only lower flexibility predicted a self-reported ED diagnosis. Across the spectrum of disordered eating behaviour there was no association between creativity measures and EDE-Q global scores. Our results were consistent with previous findings of an association between cognitive inflexibility and having an ED. However we found no evidence that cognitive inflexibility generalized to creativity more broadly. Our results may lend support to Cognitive Remediation Therapy, but further study is required.

Vicki Baker

November 2nd, 2017

Baker, V., & Terosky, A. (2017). Early Career Faculty Mentoring: Career Cycles, Learning and Support. In D. A. Clutterbuck, F. K. Kochan, L. Lunsford, N. Dominguez & J. Haddock-Millar (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Mentoring: SAGE Publishing.