Ola Olapade

July 28th, 2014 by MVH

Olapade, O. A., & Ronk, A. J. (2014). Isolation, Characterization and Community Diversity of Indigenous Putative Toluene-Degrading Bacterial Populations with Catechol-2,3-Dioxygenase Genes in Contaminated Soils. Microbial Ecology, 1-7.

Abstract: Indigenous bacterial assemblages with putative hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities were isolated, characterized and screened for the presence of the catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) gene after exposure to toluene in two different (i.e., pristine and conditioned) soil communities. The indigenous bacterial populations were exposed to the hydrocarbon substrate by the addition of toluene concentrations, ranging from 0.5 % to 10 % V/W in 10 g of each soil and incubated at 30 °C for upwards of 12 days. In total, 25 isolates (11 in pristine soil and 14 in conditioned soil) were phenotypically characterized according to standard microbiological methods and also screened for the 238-bp C23O gene fragment. Additionally, 16S rRNA analysis of the isolates identified some of them as belonging to the genera Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas. Furthermore, the two clone libraries that were constructed from these toluene-contaminated soils also revealed somewhat disparate phylotypes (i.e., 70 % Actinobacteria and Firmicutes to 30 % Proteobacteria in conditioned soil, whereas in pristine soil: 66 % Actinobacteria and Firmicutes; 21 % Proteobacteria and 13 % Bacteroidetes). The differences observed in bacterial phylotypes between these two soil communities may probably be associated with previous exposure to hydrocarbon sources by indigenous populations in the conditioned soil as compared to the pristine soil.

Albion College student co-author: Adam Ronk, ’13

Brad Chase

July 23rd, 2014 by MVH

Chase, B., Meiggs, D., Ajithprasad, P., & Slater, P. A. (2014). Pastoral land-use of the Indus Civilization in Gujarat: faunal analyses and biogenic isotopes at Bagasra. Journal of Archaeological Science, 50, 1-15.

Abstract: The Indus Civilization (2600–1900 BC) in Gujarat is characterized by a series of small yet monumentally walled settlements located along trade and travel corridors. The manufacture and use of typically Harappan material culture at these settlements demonstrates that many residents of these sites participated in exchange and interaction networks that linked them to distant Indus cities. Less is known, however, regarding the ways in which the residents of these sites were situated into their local landscapes. Here we combine previously published faunal analyses from the small walled settlement of Bagasra in the Indian state of Gujarat, with a preliminary investigation of intra- and inter-individual variation in the ratios of biogenic isotopes of strontium (87Sr/86Sr), carbon (δ13C), and oxygen (δ18O) in the tooth enamel of domestic animals consumed at the site. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the teeth of sheep and goats exhibit little intra- or inter-individual variation suggesting that most were raised locally while greater inter-individual variation in the teeth of cattle suggesting that nearly half of these animals were either raised further afield or were supplied with fodder raised elsewhere. δ13C values from these same samples in the teeth of sheep and goats exhibit considerable intra-individual variation suggesting of a seasonally variable diet incorporating significant wild forage while uniformly higher values in the teeth of cattle suggest that they consumed mostly agricultural produce throughout the year. δ18O values in the teeth of both sets of domestic livestock exhibit considerable intra-individual variation commensurate with the seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall characteristic of the region while variation between taxa is consistent with observed dietary differences. Taken together, our findings provide new information regarding the ways in which the domestic animals consumed at Bagasra were raised and obtained while establishing an empirical baseline necessary for further exploration of the land-use changes that may have accompanied the emergence and decline of South Asia’s first urban civilization.

David Reimann

July 23rd, 2014 by MVH

Reimann, D. A. (2013). Symmetric interlace patterns on polyhedra using generalized truchet tiles. Symmetry: Culture and Science, 24(1-4), 185-190.


Anne McCauley

July 23rd, 2014 by MVH

McCauley, A. (Artist). (2014). “Passage 13″. Drawing. Exhibited at: 5th Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Drawing, University of North Carolina, Asheville, January 17-March 17, 2014.


Vicki Baker

July 23rd, 2014 by MVH

Pifer, M. J., & Baker, V. L. (2014). “It could be just because I’m different”: Otherness and its outcomes in doctoral education. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 7(1), 14-30.

Abstract: For students who view themselves as different from the majority and those in positions of influence, doctoral education may present challenges beyond the typical pressures and stresses of the graduate student experience. In this article, we report findings from a qualitative study of otherness as described by 31 full-time doctoral students in two academic departments within one university. We explore identity-based otherness and its related outcomes for students and the academy. Findings from our analysis of interview data indicate that doctoral students experience otherness across a diverse range of characteristics related to professional, relational, and personal components of their identities. Findings also indicate that experiences of otherness may prevent students from viewing themselves as accepted and supported members of departmental, disciplinary, and professional communities. We conclude with implications for research and practice.

Brad Chase

July 21st, 2014 by MVH

Chase, B., Ajithprasad, P., Rajesh, S. V., Patel, A., & Sharma, B. (2014). Materializing Harappan identities: Unity and diversity in the borderlands of the Indus Civilization. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 35, 63-78.

Abstract: The widespread distribution of Harappan material culture throughout a vast expanse of northwestern South Asia is a defining characteristic of the Indus Civilization (2600–1900 BC). The social dynamics responsible for this material pattern, however, are not fully understood. While top-down perspectives on interregional interaction explain some aspects of the material record in the Indian state of Gujarat, they do not explain the material diversity that we observe at Indus settlements in Gujarat. Here, we undertake a bottom-up exploration of Harappan material culture at two small, recently excavated Indus settlements in Gujarat. Our findings show that although the residents of both sites participated in the interregional economy and publically displayed a common Harappan identity, there is evidence for considerable variation in the domestic practices characteristic of each site. We interpret these to suggest that the residents of these sites were integrated into the wider Indus Civilization by way of inclusionary ideologies that served to unify socially diverse borderland communities. These findings and interpretations regarding the role of material culture in the mediation of local social dynamics in the Indus borderlands contribute to a more complete understanding of South Asia’s first urban society while offering methodological and theoretical perspectives that further the exploration of these issues in early complex societies more generally.

Cliff Harris

July 15th, 2014 by MVH

Sakulthaew, C., Comfort, S., Chokejaroenrat, C., Harris, C., & Li, X. (2014). A combined chemical and biological approach to transforming and mineralizing PAHs in runoff water. Chemosphere, 117, 1-9.

Abstract: The water quality of lakes, rivers and streams associated with metropolitan areas is declining from increased inputs of urban runoff that contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Our objective was to transform and mineralize PAHs in runoff using a combined chemical and biological approach. Using 14C-labeled phenanthrene, 14C-benzo(a)pyrene and a mixture of 16 PAHs, we found that ozone transformed all PAHs in a H2O matrix within minutes but complete mineralization to CO2 took several weeks. When urban runoff water (7.6 mg C L−1) replaced H2O as the background matrix, some delays in degradation rates were observed but transforming a mixture of PAHs was still complete within 10 min. Comparing the biodegradability of the ozonated products to the parent structures in unsaturated soil microcosms showed that the 3-ring phenanthrene was more biodegradable (as evidence by 14CO2 released) than its ozonated products but for the 5-ring benzo(a)pyrene, the products produced by ozone were much more biodegradable (22% vs. 3% mineralized). For phenanthrene, we identified diphenaldehyde as the initial degradation product produced from ozonation. By continuing to pump the ozonated products (14C-labeled diphenaldehyde or ozone-treated benzo(a)pyrene) onto glass beads coated with microorganisms, we verified that biological mineralization could be achieved in a flow-through system and mineralization rates improved with acclimation of the microbial population (i.e., time and exposure to the substrate). These results support a combined ozone and biological approach to treating PAHs in urban runoff water.

W. Jeffrey Wilson

July 14th, 2014 by MVH

Wilson, W. J., Ferrara, N. C., Blaker, A. L., & Giddings, C. E. (2014). Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis. PeerJ, 2, e250.

Abstract: Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving “master” worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasing their movement; the behavior of yoked controls had no effect on the light. We demonstrate that in as few as 12 trials the behavior of the master worms comes under the control of this contingency.

Albion College student co-author: Nicole Ferrara, ’12

Albion College student co-author: Amanda Blaker, ’12

Albion College student co-author: Charisa Giddings, ’12

Vanessa McCaffrey, Nicolle Zellner

July 10th, 2014 by MVH

McCaffrey, V. P., Zellner, N. E. B., Waun, C. M., Bennett, E. R., & Earl, E. K. (2014). Reactivity and Survivability of Glycolaldehyde in Simulated Meteorite Impact Experiments. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, 1-14.

Abstract: Sugars of extraterrestrial origin have been observed in the interstellar medium (ISM), in at least one comet spectrum, and in several carbonaceous chondritic meteorites that have been recovered from the surface of the Earth. The origins of these sugars within the meteorites have been debated. To explore the possibility that sugars could be generated during shock events, this paper reports on the results of the first laboratory impact experiments wherein glycolaldehyde, found in the ISM, as well as glycolaldehyde mixed with montmorillonite clay, have been subjected to reverberated shocks from ~5 to >25 GPa. New biologically relevant molecules, including threose, erythrose and ethylene glycol, were identified in the resulting samples. These results show that sugar molecules can not only survive but also become more complex during impact delivery to planetary bodies.

Albion College student co-author: Cassandra Waun, ’13

Albion College student co-author: Erica Bennett, ’13

Albion College student co-author: Erica Earl, ’14

Clayton Parr

July 10th, 2014 by MVH

Linich, C., & Parr, C. (2014). Okro mch’edelo (O Goldsmith). In C. Parr (Ed.): Earthsongs.

Description:  This piece is an equal-voiced setting, with the narrow ranges of each part typical of many Georgian folk songs. It can be sung in the written key nicely by middle school-age or older mixed groups, or women’s groups with some older women who are comfortable with the occasional G below middle C in the bani (bass) part. For a TTB setting, transpose down a major third or fourth. It could be transposed up a step or so for use with young children, but singing the piece any higher than that will change the desired traditional folk tone quality of the sound. Any kind of octave doubling, either above or below, is not characteristic of the Georgian folk tradition and is not recommended.

Allison Harnish

May 15th, 2014 by MVH

Harnish, A. (2014). Extractive workload: a mixed-method approach for investigating the socially differentiated effects of land-use/land-cover changes in a southern Zambian frontier. Population and Environment, 35(4), 455-476.

Abstract: In rural regions across the globe, local natural resources (i.e., “bush” resources) are central to meeting daily household needs. Culturally-influenced gender- and age-based divisions of labor guide the harvesting of these resources and, as a result, shifts in resource availability will differentially affect women, men, girls, and boys. This research brief presents results of an innovative pilot project designed to assess the socially differentiated effects of land-use/land-cover changes (LULCC) on Gwembe Tonga migrants living in Kulaale, an agricultural frontier in southern Zambia. Integrating existing analyses of remotely sensed imagery with a seasonal resource survey and mapping exercise (n = 20 homesteads), this study finds the average extractive workloads (mean annual distance traveled for the collection of bush resources) of women, men, girls, and boys to be both unequal and contrary to recent speculations about the distinctive vulnerability of adult women to environmental change. Drawing on qualitative ethnographic methods—including semi-structured interviews (n = 101), a homestead labor survey (n = 38), participant observation, and references to over fifty years of anthropological research—the author identifies additional variables—including the demographic structure of Kulaale homesteads and the flexible division of subsistence labor—that color Gwembe Tonga migrants’ aged and gendered experiences of LULCC. The study adds important nuance to our understanding of natural resource practices and individual-level vulnerability, particularly in the face of contemporary environmental change.

David Seely

May 13th, 2014 by MVH

Fogle, M., Wulf, D., Morgan, K., McCammon, D., Seely, D. G., Draganić, I. N., et al. (2014). X-ray-emission measurements following charge exchange between C6+ and H2. Physical Review A, 89(4), 042705.

Abstract: Lyman x-ray spectra following charge exchange between C6+ and H2 are presented for collision velocities between 400 and 2300 km/s (1–30 keV/amu). Spectra were measured by a microcalorimeter x-ray detector capable of fully resolving the C vi Lyman series emission lines though Lyman-δ . The ratios of the measured emission lines are sensitive to the angular momentum l states populated during charge exchange and are used to gauge the effectiveness of different l-distribution models in predicting Lyman emission due to charge exchange. At low velocities, we observe that both single-electron-capture and double-electron-capture autoionization contribute to Lyman emission and that a statistical l distribution best describes the measured line ratios. At higher velocities single-electron capture dominates with the l distribution peaked at the maximum l.

Perry Myers

May 7th, 2014 by MVH

Myers, P. (2013). The Ambivalence of a Spiritual Quest in India: Waldemar Bonsels’ Indienfahrt. In V. Fuechtner & M. Rhiel (Eds.), Imagining Germany, Imagining Asia : Essays in Asian-German Studies (pp. 131-154). Rochester, N.Y.: Camden House.

Ken Saville

May 7th, 2014 by MVH

Shaffer, C. D., Alvarez, C. J., Bednarski, A. E., Dunbar, D., Goodman, A. L., Reinke, C., Saville, K., et al. (2014). A Course-Based Research Experience: How Benefits Change with Increased Investment in Instructional Time. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 13(1), 111-130.

Abstract: There is widespread agreement that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs should provide undergraduates with research experience. Practical issues and limited resources, however, make this a challenge. We have developed a bioinformatics project that provides a course-based research experience for students at a diverse group of schools and offers the opportunity to tailor this experience to local curriculum and institution-specific student needs. We assessed both attitude and knowledge gains, looking for insights into how students respond given this wide range of curricular and institutional variables. While different approaches all appear to result in learning gains, we find that a significant investment of course time is required to enable students to show gains commensurate to a summer research experience. An alumni survey revealed that time spent on a research project is also a significant factor in the value former students assign to the experience one or more years later. We conclude: 1) implementation of a bioinformatics project within the biology curriculum provides a mechanism for successfully engaging large numbers of students in undergraduate research; 2) benefits to students are achievable at a wide variety of academic institutions; and 3) successful implementation of course-based research experiences requires significant investment of instructional time for students to gain full benefit.

Kevin Metz

April 29th, 2014 by MVH

Metz, K. M., Sanders, S. E., Miller, A. K., & French, K. R. (2014). Uptake and Impact of Silver Nanoparticles on Brassica rapa: An Environmental Nanoscience Laboratory Sequence for a Nonmajors Course. Journal of Chemical Education, 91(2), 264-268.

Abstract: Nanoscience is one of the fast growing fields in science and engineering. Curricular materials ranging from laboratory experiments to entire courses have been developed for undergraduate science majors. However, little material has been developed for the nonmajor students. Here we present a semester-long laboratory sequence developed for a nonmajors course, where students investigate the potential environmental impacts of nanoscience. Students synthesize and characterize silver nanoparticles using green synthetic methods. They then use the suspension of silver nanoparticles to “water” Wisconsin Fast Plants, Brassica rapa, over a three to four week period to simulate environmental exposure. Possible impacts are examined throughout the growth period, and silver uptake by the plants is quantified at the end of the growth period. This lab requires design input from the student, making it an open-ended experiment. Although designed for nonmajors, this lab could easily be adapted for an environmental chemistry or chemical nanoscience course.

Albion College student co-author: Stephanie E. Sanders, ’15

Albion College student co-author: Anna K. Miller, ’13

Jocelyn McWhirter

April 29th, 2014 by MVH

McWhirter, J. (2014). Rejected Prophets: Jesus and His Witnesses in Luke-Acts. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press.

Although several scholars have written about how Luke portrays Jesus and the apostles as prophets, no one has yet provided a comprehensive theory as to why Luke’s protagonists resemble the prophets.  McWhirter shows that Luke uses these biblical prophets as precedents, seeking to legitimate the apostles’ teachings in the face of events, such as the destruction of Jerusalem and the deaths of Peter and Paul, which seem to contradict those teachings. In order to show that all this was part of God’s plan, Luke compares Jesus and his witnesses to Israel’s prophets who were rejected by their own people. (Publisher’s description).

Dan Skean

April 17th, 2014 by MVH

Majure, L. C., Ionta, G. M., Skean, J. D., & Judd, W. S. (2013). New records and notes on species from Parc National Pic Macaya, Massif de la Hotte, Haiti, including a new species of Pilea (Urticaceae). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 7(2), 681-691.

Abstract: Nineteen species new to the flora of the Macaya Biosphere Reserve (including Parc National Pic Macaya) are reported, along with notes on five additional species. The Hispaniolan endemic Cyperus picardae is reported as new to the Massif de la Hotte, and a new species of Pilea, P. vermicularis (Urticaceae), from the Massif de la Hotte, is described and illustrated.

W. Jeffrey Wilson

April 4th, 2014 by MVH

Shannon, K. M., Gage, G. J., Jankovic, A., Wilson, W. J., & Marzullo, T. C. (2014). Portable conduction velocity experiments using earthworms for the college and high school neuroscience teaching laboratory. Advances in Physiology Education, 38(1), 62-70.

Abstract: The earthworm is ideal for studying action potential conduction velocity in a classroom setting, as its simple linear anatomy allows easy axon length measurements and the worm’s sparse coding allows single action potentials to be easily identified. The earthworm has two giant fiber systems (lateral and medial) with different conduction velocities that can be easily measured by manipulating electrode placement and the tactile stimulus. Here, we present a portable and robust experimental setup that allows students to perform conduction velocity measurements within a 30-min to 1-h laboratory session. Our improvement over this well-known preparation is the combination of behaviorally relevant tactile stimuli (avoiding electrical stimulation) with the invention of minimal, low-cost, and portable equipment. We tested these experiments during workshops in both a high school and college classroom environment and found positive learning outcomes when we compared pre- and posttests taken by the students.

Trisha Franzen

March 25th, 2014 by MVH

Franzen, T. (2014). Anna Howard Shaw: The Work of Woman Suffrage. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Acknowledged by her contemporaries as the most outstanding woman suffrage orator of her time, Anna Howard Shaw (1847-1919) has nonetheless received minimal attention from historians. Trisha Franzen rectifies that oversight with this first scholarly biography of Shaw, a study that illuminates Shaw’s oft-ignored early years and challenges existing scholarship on her time in the suffrage movement.

An immigrant from a poor family, Shaw grew up in an economic reality that encouraged the adoption of non-traditional gender roles. Challenging traditional gender boundaries throughout her life, she put herself through college, worked as an ordained minister and a doctor, and built a tightly-knit family with her secretary and longtime companion Lucy E. Anthony.

Drawing on unprecedented research, Franzen shows how these circumstances and choices both impacted Shaw’s role in the woman suffrage movement and set her apart from her native-born, middle- and upper-class colleagues. Franzen also rehabilitates Shaw’s years as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, arguing that Shaw’s much-belittled tenure actually marked a renaissance of both NAWSA and the suffrage movement as a whole.  (Publisher’s description)

Vicki Baker

February 27th, 2014 by MVH

Pifer, M., & Baker, V. (2013). Identity as a Theoretical Construct in Research about Academic Careers. In J. Huisman & M. Tight (Eds.), Theory and Method in Higher Education Research (Vol. 9, pp. 115-132): Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Abstract: In this chapter, we review the ways in which scholars have conceptualized and relied on the notion of identity to understand the academic career. We explore the use of identity as a theoretical construct in research about the experience of being an academic. We discuss the individual and organizational factors that scholars have focused on when seeking to understand the role of professional and personal identity in academic careers, as well as recent and emerging shifts in the use of identity within this line of scholarship. Research suggests that if we are to understand the future of the academic career, we must understand the identities of its current and prospective members and, more importantly, how those identities shape goals, behaviors, and outcomes. We close with recommendations for future research and theory development.

Brad Rabquer

February 13th, 2014 by MVH

Rabquer, B. J., & Koch, A. E. (2013). NK4 therapy: a new approach to target angiogenesis and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 15(5).

Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a progressive autoimmune disease characterized by synovial membrane hyperplasia, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-Met, are both overexpressed in the RA synovium. NK4 is an antagonist of HGF which has been shown to inhibit tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. In an experimental model of RA, NK4 gene therapy inhibited joint damage and inflammation in both preventative and therapeutic models. NK4 treatment therefore represents a possible therapeutic option in combating RA.

Eric Hill

February 6th, 2014 by MVH

Neuberg, S. L., Warner, C. M., Mistler, S. A., Berlin, A., Hill, E. D., Johnson, J. D., et al. (2014). Religion and Intergroup Conflict: Findings From the Global Group Relations Project. Psychological Science, 25(1), 198-206.

Abstract: How might religion shape intergroup conflict? We tested whether religious infusion – the extent to which religious rituals and discourse permeate the everyday activities of groups and their members – moderated the effects of two factors known to increase intergroup conflict: competition for limited resources and incompatibility of values held by potentially conflicting groups. We used data from the Global Group Relations Project to investigate 194 groups (e.g., ethnic, religious, national) at 97 sites around the world. When religion was infused in group life, groups were especially prejudiced against those groups that held incompatible values, and they were likely to discriminate against such groups. Moreover, whereas disadvantaged groups with low levels of religious infusion typically avoided directing aggression against their resource-rich and powerful counterparts, disadvantaged groups with high levels of religious infusion directed significant aggression against them-despite the significant tangible costs to the disadvantaged groups potentially posed by enacting such aggression. This research suggests mechanisms through which religion may increase intergroup conflict and introduces an innovative method for performing nuanced, cross-societal research.

Zhen Li

January 27th, 2014 by MVH

Liao, Q., & Li, Z. (2014). Portfolio optimization of computer and mobile botnets. International Journal of Information Security, 13(1), 1-14.

Abstract: Botnet, a network of compromised computers controlled by botmasters, can perform various forms of malicious attacks and has emerged as one of the top security problems yet to be solved. Traditionally, botmasters have been focusing on herding computers. As mobile computing devices such as smart phones and tablets are becoming increasingly popular, there are more targets exposed to hacking risks. While technical approaches have so far received limited results, we study the botnet problem from an alternative angle, i.e., economic perspectives of botnet industry. In this paper, we play devil’s advocate and think from the perspective of botmasters, i.e., how botmasters can evolve to maximize their profits in response to changing technologies. We adopt the concept of portfolio management, in which botmasters run their business through maintaining an optimal portfolio of PC and mobile devices to diversify risk and maximize profits of entire botnet industry. On the other hand, users may also maximize their utility function by keeping an optimal portfolio of network activities and data on their computers and mobile devices. The strategic playing by botmasters and users is modeled in a game theoretical framework. Various equilibrium solutions are discussed in terms of their welfare implications to botmasters and users. Understanding the optimal portfolio choice by botmasters provides insight for defenders, especially with evolving and diversified computing environments.

Thom Wilch

January 23rd, 2014 by MVH

Smellie, J. L., Rocchi, S., Wilch, T. I., Gemelli, M., Di Vincenzo, G., McIntosh, W., et al. (2014). Glaciovolcanic evidence for a polythermal Neogene East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Geology, 42(1), 39-42.

Abstract: A paradigm has existed for more than 30 years that the basal thermal regime of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in Victoria Land made a fundamental transition from wet-based to cold-based either at ca. 14 Ma or after ca. 2.5 Ma. The basal thermal regime is important because it determines the potential for unstable behavior in an ice sheet. We have studied the environmental characteristics of subglacially erupted volcanic centers scattered along 800 km of the Ross Sea flank of the Transantarctic Mountains. The volcanoes preserve evidence for the coeval paleo-ice thicknesses and contain features diagnostic of both wet-based and cold-based ice conditions. By dating the sequences we are able to demonstrate that the basal thermal regime varied spatially and with time between ca. 12 Ma and present. It was polythermal overall and probably comprised a coarse temperature patchwork of frozen-bed and thawed-bed ice, similar to the East Antarctic Ice Sheet today. Thus, an important shift is required in the prevailing paradigm describing its temporal evolution.

Ola Olapade

January 16th, 2014 by MVH

Anissi, J., Sendide, K., & Olapade, O. (2014). Seasonal Shifts in the Bacterioplankton Assemblages of High Altitude Middle Atlas Lakes. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6(1), 1-7.

Abstract: Compositional changes of the bacterioplankton assemblages in four high altitude middle Atlas lakes were monitored over a complete seasonal cycle using combinations of culture-dependent and molecular approaches. Viable bacterial numbers varied between seasons, with the lowest numbers recorded in the winter and the highest in the summer in all four lakes. Also, bacterial occurrences were found to be strongly correlated with water temperature in all the four sites, i.e., Lake Aoua (0.88), Ifreh (0.59), Hechlef (0.77) and Affourgagh (0.79) during the study period. Standard microbiological characterization of bacteria isolates from the lakes revealed majority (68%) to be Gram positive. Seasonal variations in the microbial assemblages among the lakes were also validated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Shifts in microbial assemblages, especially of the fecal indicator bacteria appeared to also be influenced by differences in the morphometric and watershed characteristics among the lakes. This study further reveals the need to employ combinations of methodological approaches, including taxonomic, physiological and molecular methods to adequately delineate and fully understand the ecology of microbial assemblages in extreme environments.

Vicki Baker

January 16th, 2014 by MVH

Kish-Gephart, J., Detert, J., Treviño, L., Baker, V., & Martin, S. (2013). Situational Moral Disengagement: Can the Effects of Self-Interest be Mitigated? Journal of Business Ethics, 117(3), 1-19.

Abstract: Self-interest has long been recognized as a powerful human motive. Yet, much remains to be understood about the thinking behind self-interested pursuits. Drawing from multiple literatures, we propose that situations high in opportunity for self-interested gain trigger a type of moral cognition called moral disengagement that allows the individual to more easily disengage internalized moral standards. We also theorize two countervailing forces—situational harm to others and dispositional conscientiousness—that may weaken the effects of personal gain on morally disengaged reasoning. We test our hypotheses in two studies using qualitative and quantitative data and complementary research methods and design. We demonstrate that when personal gain incentives are relatively moderate, reminders of harm to others can reduce the likelihood that employees will morally disengage. Furthermore, when strong personal gain incentives are present in a situation, highly conscientious individuals are less apt than their counterparts to engage in morally disengaged reasoning.

Darren Mason

January 13th, 2014 by MVH

Li, H., Mason, D. E., Bieler, T. R., Boehlert, C. J., & Crimp, M. A. (2013). Methodology for estimating the critical resolved shear stress ratios of α-phase Ti using EBSD-based trace analysis. Acta Materialia, 61(20), 7555-7567.

Abstract: A novel method for calculating the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) ratios of different deformation system types in polycrystalline non-cubic metals has been developed. The mean CRSS ratios between different deformation systems were calculated for both commercially pure (CP) Ti and Ti–5Al–2.5Sn (wt.%) tensile deformed at ambient temperature and 455 °C using an in situ scanning electron microscope-based testing technique combined with electron backscattered diffraction. It was found that the relative activity of the different deformation systems changes as a function of alloying composition and deformation temperature. Prismatic slip was the most active deformation mode for CP Ti. CP Ti exhibited a lower resistance to prismatic slip at both ambient and elevated temperatures compared with Ti–5Al–2.5Sn. For Ti–5Al–2.5Sn, prismatic slip was the most active deformation system at ambient temperature although the basal slip activity significantly increased compared to CP Ti, mostly likely due to an increased c/a ratio resulting in a closer packed basal plane. At 455 °C, basal slip exhibited a lower CRSS than prismatic slip for Ti–5Al–2.5Sn. The relative activity of other deformation systems was also affected by alloying and temperature. The statistical resampling technique of bootstrapping was used to generate multiple equivalent data sets from which mean CRSS ratios between different deformation systems, and associated confidence intervals, could be deduced. It was found that the mean CRSS ratios at low and high strains varied slightly for the same testing conditions. Moreover, lesser activated slip systems resulted in relatively larger confidence intervals for the CRSS means. This variability may be attributed to a number of potential factors, including measurement errors, rotations of grains during deformation, local stress state variations, and work hardening. The analysis further suggests that awareness of the intrinsic statistical variability in CRSS ratios should be considered when formulating crystal plasticity constitutive models.

Drew Christopher, Mareike Wieth

December 10th, 2013 by MVH

Walker, R. J., Kribs, Z. D., Christopher, A. N., Shewach, O. R., & Wieth, M. B. (2014). Age, the Big Five, and time-of-day preference: A mediational model. Personality and Individual Differences, 56, 170-174.

Abstract: This research examined the extent to which the Big Five personality factors mediated the relationship between age and time-of-day preference. A sample of 491 Americans (M-age = 32 yrs) completed the 240-item NEO-PI-R, the 19-item Home and Ostberg’s (1976) Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and provided demographic information. As demonstrated in previous research, correlations revealed that older people expressed a stronger morning preference. More importantly, using bootstrapping procedures, it was found that the Big Five factor of conscientiousness attenuated the relationship between age and time-of-day preference. These findings indicate that conscientiousness plays a significant role in the relationship between age and time-of-day preference.

Albion College alumnus co-author: Ryan Walker, ’12

Albion College student co-author: Ori Shewach, ’14

Albion College student co-author: Zach Kribs, ’15

Ola Olapade

November 25th, 2013 by MVH

Olapade, O. (2013). Occurrence, Ubiquity and Proficiency of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Assemblages in Nature. Journal of Pollution Effects and Control, 1(2).

David Seely

November 7th, 2013 by MVH

Defay, X., Morgan, K., McCammon, D., Wulf, D., Andrianarijaona, V. M., Fogle, M., Seely, D.G., et al. (2013). X-ray emission measurements following charge exchange between C6+ and H. Physical Review A, 88(5), 052702.

Abstract: X-ray spectra following charge-exchange collisions between C6+ and He are presented for collision energies between 460 and 32 000 eV/u. Spectra were obtained at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Multicharged Ion Research Facility using a microcalorimeter x-ray detector capable of fully resolving the C vi Lyman series lines through Ly-γ. These line ratios are sensitive to the initial electron distribution and test our understanding of the charge-exchange process. In addition, these line ratios are important for identifying charge exchange in astrophysical contexts involving the interaction of solar wind ions with neutrals. Our measurements are performed at collision velocities (300–2500 km/s) which overlap most of the solar wind range. Additional data of this type can be combined with computations to provide an extensive set of reliable line ratios and absolute cross sections for the interpretation of a variety of astrophysical situations.