January 29th, 2015 by MVH
Madhok, B. (2015). A praxis-based global ethical discourse on development and women. Development in Practice, 25(1), 113-123.
Abstract: This article explores a praxis-based moral approach to the study of development and women. Drawing upon an illustrative case-study of Ankur Kala – a non-governmental organisation devoted to the development of destitute women in Kolkata, India – the article shows how studying actual development practices on the ground generates valuable insights without which our ethical understanding of women’s development globally would be incomplete.
January 15th, 2015 by MVH
Baker, V. L., & Pifer, M. J. (2015). Antecedents and outcomes: theories of fit and the study of doctoral education. Studies in Higher Education, 40(2), 296-310.
Abstract: This paper explores fit as an important theoretical construct in the study of doctoral education and doctoral student development. We discuss how research based on three types of fit (person-environment fit, person-culture fit, person-vocation fit) may provide critical insights into the doctoral student experience, and offer a framework based on antecedents and outcomes to support future research. We conclude with an application of this framework to two understudied populations of doctoral students and future research directions.
January 8th, 2015 by MVH
Wieth, M. B., & Burns, B. D. (2014). Rewarding Multitasking: Negative Effects of an Incentive on Problem Solving under Divided Attention. Journal of Problem Solving, 7(1).
Abstract: Research has consistently shown negative effects of multitasking on tasks such as problem solving. This study was designed to investigate the impact of an incentive when solving problems in a multitasking situation. Incentives have generally been shown to increase problem solving (e.g., Wieth and Burns, 2006), however, it is unclear whether an incentive can increase problem solving while attentional resources are divided. Participants were either given an incentive or not and asked to complete incremental and insight problems while either in a dual-task or single task condition. After solving the problems participants were given a surprise memory test. Results showed that the incentive only led to increases in problem solving in the single task condition but not the dual-task condition. Furthermore, results showed that an incentive in the dual-task condition led to an increase in recall of irrelevant information. These findings indicate that an incentive cannot ameliorate the detrimental effects of multitasking when problem solving and may even lead to an increase in irrelevant information processing.
January 8th, 2015 by MVH
Sridhar, N., Shahrokhshahi, R., Miller, A. J., Calkins, B., Gerrits, T., Lita, A., et al. (2014). Direct measurement of the Wigner function by photon-number-resolving detection. Journal of the Optical Society of America B-Optical Physics, 31(10), B34-B40.
Abstract: Photon-number-resolving (PNR) detection allows for the direct measurement of the Wigner quasi-probability distribution of an optical mode without the need for numerically processing an inverse Radon transform [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4344 (1996)]. In this work, we reproduced the seminal experiment of Banaszek et al. [Phys. Rev. A 60, 674 (1999)] of quantum tomography of a pure coherent state, and of a statistical mixture thereof, and extended it to the more general case of photon fluxes with much more than one photon per detection time. This was made possible by the use of a superconducting transition-edge sensor to perform PNR detection from zero to five photons at 1064 nm, at similar to 70% system efficiency and with no dead time. We detail signal acquisition and detection efficiency and discuss prospects for applying such quantum tomography to non-Gaussian states. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
January 5th, 2015 by MVH
Lopatto, D., Hauser, C., Jones, C. J., Paetkau, D., Chandrasekaran, V., Dunbar, D., Saville, K., et al. (2014). A Central Support System Can Facilitate Implementation and Sustainability of a Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics. Cbe-Life Sciences Education, 13(4), 711-723.
Abstract: In their 2012 report, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology advocated “replacing standard science laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses”-a challenging proposition that presents practical and pedagogical difficulties. In this paper, we describe our collective experiences working with the Genomics Education Partnership, a nationwide faculty consortium that aims to provide undergraduates with a research experience in genomics through a scheduled course (a classroom-based undergraduate research experience, or CURE). We examine the common barriers encountered in implementing a CURE, program elements of most value to faculty, ways in which a shared core support system can help, and the incentives for and rewards of establishing a CURE on our diverse campuses. While some of the barriers and rewards are specific to a research project utilizing a genomics approach, other lessons learned should be broadly applicable. We find that a central system that supports a shared investigation can mitigate some shortfalls in campus infrastructure (such as time for new curriculum development, availability of IT services) and provides collegial support for change. Our findings should be useful for designing similar supportive programs to facilitate change in the way we teach science for undergraduates.
December 18th, 2014 by MVH
Li, Z., & Liao, Q. (2014). Network pricing: can both ISP and P2P benefit? International Journal of Network Management, 24(6), 433-449.
Abstract: Internet service providers are facing increasing back pressure from rising access demand by users, especially peer-to-peer (P2P)-based applications that greatly enhance the large-scale distribution of content into and out of their networks. With the ever increasing consumption pressure on scarce bandwidth resources, ISPs have been forced to reconsider their business model of overselling all-you-can-eat’ broadband at flat rates. Technical solutions such as traffic differentiation or blocking violate the principle of network neutrality; traffic shaping and deep packet analysis fall short in the presence of encryption; and P4P (localized P2P)-based solutions are difficult to achieve in a heterogeneous environment. Economically, various usage-based pricing schemes have been proposed and discussed. While they can improve efficiency in bandwidth consumption, they tend to face strong customer resistance as users have strong preference in favour of simple flat rates. We argue that any feasible pricing reforms cannot deviate much from the current flat rates while providing financial incentives for bandwidth hogs to limit their bandwidth access. In contrast to normal usage-based pricing models that charge by volume, we propose a temporal-based pricing model that may generate a mutually beneficial solution that can not only increase the profitability of ISPs but also accommodate P2P, rather than killing it, without changing the software, protocols or hardware that clients or ISPs use on the network. (Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
December 10th, 2014 by MVH
Gadekar, C., Rajesh, S. V., Shaikh, S., Chase, B., Rawat, Y. S., Patel, A., et al. (2014). Typological Analysis of Chalcolithic Lithic Assemblage from Navinal, District Kachchh, Gujarat, Western India. Man and Environment, 39(1), 92-105.
Abstract: Recent explorations at the site of Navinal, Kachchh District, Gujarat has brought to light interesting evidence regarding the co-existence of regional Chalcolithic culture with Urban Harappans. This integration is reflected in various archaeological artefacts collected from the site. Lithic assemblages are an integral part of Chalcolithic cultures and are known to provide important evidence regarding trade and technology. The lithic assemblage recovered from the site has given proof of long distance trade/contact and adaptation of a new technique of the lithic blade production.
December 4th, 2014 by MVH
Walling, C. B., & Waltz, S. (2014). Putting the Puzzle Pieces Together: Human Rights Advocacy and the History of International Human Rights Standards Website. Human Rights Quarterly, 36(4), 905-914.
Abstract: Human Rights Advocacy and the History of International Human Rights Standards (http://humanrightshistory.umich.edu) explores the development and evolution of international human rights policy. This website is a useful teaching tool for instructors and a resource for practitioners interested in the standard setting work of the human rights movement and the intellectual history of human rights policy. It is organized around five thematic areas where human rights organizations have significantly contributed to policy: identifying human rights problems, promoting policy mechanisms within the UN system, establishing accountability for human rights abuse, developing research methodologies, and setting the agenda for future standard setting and advocacy work.
November 14th, 2014 by MVH
Hamel, D. R., Shalm, L. K., Hubel, H., Miller, A. J., Marsili, F., Verma, V. B., et al. (2014). Direct generation of three-photon polarization entanglement. Nature Photonics, 8(10).
Abstract: Non-classical states of light are of fundamental importance for emerging quantum technologies. All optics experiments producing multi-qubit entangled states have until now relied on outcome post-selection, a procedure where only the measurement results corresponding to the desired state are considered. This method severely limits the usefulness of the resulting entangled states. Here, we show the direct production of polarization-entangled photon triplets by cascading two entangled downconversion processes. Detecting the triplets with high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors allows us to fully characterize them through quantum state tomography. We use our three-photon entangled state to demonstrate the ability to herald Bell states, a task that was not possible with previous three-photon states, and test local realism by violating the Mermin and Svetlichny inequalities. These results represent a significant breakthrough for entangled multi-photon state production by eliminating the constraints of outcome post-selection, providing a novel resource for optical quantum information processing.
November 6th, 2014 by MVH
Hagerman, C. A. (2014). Weapons: Catapult Bolts, Arrowheads, Javelin and Spear Heads, and Sling Bullets. In G. P. Schaus (Ed.), Stymphalos : the acropolis sanctuary. Volume 1 (pp. 79-102). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Abstract: The buildings and artefacts uncovered by Canadian excavations at Stymphalos (1994–2001) shed light on the history and cult of a small sanctuary on the acropolis of the ancient city. The thirteen detailed studies collected in Stymphalos: The Acropolis Sanctuary illuminate a variety of aspects of the site. Epigraphical evidence confirms that both Athena and Eileithyia, goddess of childbirth, were worshipped in the sanctuary between the fourth and second centuries BCE. The temple and service buildings are modest in size and materials, but the temple floor and pillar shrine suggest that certain stones and bedrock outcrops were held as sacred objects. Earrings, finger rings, and other jewelry, along with almost 100 loomweights, indicate that women were prominent in cult observances. Many iron projectile points (arrowheads and catapult bolts) suggest that the sanctuary was destroyed in a violent attack around the mid-second century, possibly by the Romans. A modest sanctuary in a modest Arcadian city-state, the acropolis sanctuary at Stymphalos will be a major point of reference for all archaeologists and historians studying ancient Arcadia and all southern Greece in the future.
October 30th, 2014 by MVH
Antibus, J. V., Panter, K. S., Wilch, T. I., Dunbar, N., McIntosh, W., Tripati, A., et al. (2014). Alteration of volcaniclastic deposits at Minna Bluff: Geochemical insights on mineralizing environment and climate during the Late Miocene in Antarctica. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 15(8), 3258-3280.
Abstract: Secondary minerals in volcaniclastic deposits at Minna Bluff, a 45 km long peninsula in the Ross Sea, are used to infer processes of alteration and environmental conditions in the Late Miocene. Glassy volcaniclastic deposits are altered and contain phillipsite and chabazite, low to high-Mg carbonates, chalcedony, and clay. The δ18O of carbonates and chalcedony is variable, ranging from −0.50 to 21.53‰ and 0.68 to 10.37‰, respectively, and δD for chalcedony is light (−187.8 to −220.6‰), corresponding to Antarctic meteoric water. A mean carbonate 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70327 ± 0.0009 (1σ, n = 12) is comparable to lava and suggests freshwater, as opposed to seawater, caused the alteration. Minerals were precipitated at elevated temperatures (91 and 104°C) based on quartz-calcite equilibrium, carbonate 13C-18C thermometry (Δ47 derived temperature = 5° to 43°C) and stability of zeolites in geothermal systems (>10 to ∼100°C). The alteration was a result of isolated, ephemeral events involving the exchange between heated meteoric water and glass during or soon after the formation of each deposit. Near-surface evaporative distillation can explain 18O-enriched compositions for some Mg-rich carbonates and chalcedony. The δ18Owater calculated for carbonates (−15.8 to −22.9‰) reveals a broad change, becoming heavier between ∼12 and ∼7 Ma, consistent with a warming climate. These findings are independently corroborated by the interpretation of Late Miocene sedimentary sequences recovered from nearby sediment cores. However, in contrast to a cold-based thermal regime proposed for ice flow at core sites, wet-based conditions prevailed at Minna Bluff; a likely consequence of high heat flow associated with an active magma system.
October 24th, 2014 by MVH
Rabquer, B. J., & Koch, A. E. (2014). Microvascular clues to hemiplegia-induced asymmetric RA. Nature Reviews Rheumatology, advance online publication.
Abstract: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis who are hemiplegic, and also mice with denervated hindpaws and experimentally-induced arthritis, can develop unilateral arthritis. But is a specific branch of the nervous system involved in this asymmetry, or does a lack of innervation alter the microvasculature and promote vascular impermeability?
October 23rd, 2014 by MVH
Kish-Gephart, J., Detert, J., Treviño, L., Baker, V., & Martin, S. (2014). Situational Moral Disengagement: Can the Effects of Self-Interest be Mitigated? Journal of Business Ethics, 125(2), 267-285.
Abstract: Self-interest has long been recognized as a powerful human motive. Yet, much remains to be understood about the thinking behind self-interested pursuits. Drawing from multiple literatures, we propose that situations high in opportunity for self-interested gain trigger a type of moral cognition called moral disengagement that allows the individual to more easily disengage internalized moral standards. We also theorize two countervailing forces—situational harm to others and dispositional conscientiousness—that may weaken the effects of personal gain on morally disengaged reasoning. We test our hypotheses in two studies using qualitative and quantitative data and complementary research methods and design. We demonstrate that when personal gain incentives are relatively moderate, reminders of harm to others can reduce the likelihood that employees will morally disengage. Furthermore, when strong personal gain incentives are present in a situation, highly conscientious individuals are less apt than their counterparts to engage in morally disengaged reasoning.
October 23rd, 2014 by MVH
Deutsch, G. (2014). Little guy (Short story). Confrontation, 115, 39-56.
October 16th, 2014 by MVH
Alozie, N., & Mitchell, C. (2014). Getting Students Talking: Supporting Classroom Discussion Practices in Inquiry-Based Science in Real-Time Teaching. The American Biology Teacher, 76(8), 501-506.
Abstract: Why is it so hard to get students talking in science class? Who is responsible? Are the students unwilling to speak in class? What kinds of supports are helpful for in-the-moment teaching during classroom discussions in science? We present one high school teacher’s facilitation of science discussions while supported by a dialogic discussion structure that was collaboratively developed through professional-development workshops. Our findings provide a real-time teaching tool for teachers working toward integrating inquiry-based science discussions in their classrooms.
October 13th, 2014 by MVH
Bollman, M. (2014). Basic gambling mathematics : the numbers behind the neon. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
“Basic Gambling Mathematics: The Numbers Behind the Neon explains the mathematics involved in analyzing games of chance, including casino games, horse racing, and lotteries. The book helps readers understand the mathematical reasons why some gambling games are better for the player than others. Along with discussing the mathematics of well-known casino games, the author examines game variations that have been proposed or used in actual casinos. Numerous examples illustrate the mathematical ideas in a range of casino games while end-of-chapter exercises go beyond routine calculations to give readers hands-on experience with casino-related computations. The book begins with a brief historical introduction and mathematical preliminaries before developing the essential results and applications of elementary probability, including the important idea of mathematical expectation. The author then addresses probability questions arising from a variety of games, including roulette, craps, baccarat, blackjack, Caribbean stud poker, Royal Roulette, and sic bo. The final chapter explores the mathematics behind “get rich quick” schemes, such as the martingale and the Iron Cross, and shows how simple mathematics uncovers the flaws in these systems.” (Publisher’s description)
October 1st, 2014 by MVH
Mittag, D. M. (2014). A Meno Problem for Evidentialism. Southern Journal of Philosophy, 52(2), 250-266.
Abstract: The original Meno problem is to explain why knowledge is more valuable than mere true belief. In this paper I argue that evidentialists face an additional Meno problem, a Meno problem that, to date, no evidentialist has considered. Specifically, evidentialists must account for the additional epistemic value of a doxastically justified doxastic attitude as compared to a doxastic attitude that is merely propositionally justified. I consider the nature of the problem facing evidentialism and critically discuss two attempts to account for this additional epistemic value. Then, I highlight the remaining options and present the alternative I favor. According to this alternative, while the nature of doxastic justification is analyzed in terms of propositional justification, the value of doxastic justification is not. Holding a doxastic attitude on the basis of propositionally justifying evidence is a fundamental epistemic good. In virtue of this, doxastically justified doxastic attitudes have fundamental epistemic value.
October 1st, 2014 by MVH
Christensen, N. A. (2014). Facing the Weather in James Galvin’s The Meadow and Cormac McCarthy’s The Road. Isle-Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment, 21(1), 192-204.
This is an essay about the weather and the power of the imagination. What I have to say is as much for people outside of the academy as it is for those of us within it. In the academy, and even within the circles of environmental literary criticism, it might seem romantic or naïve or old fashioned to suggest that the imaginative potency of literature can change values and behavior. But that is precisely what I believe—that reading literature can alter the way we imagine ourselves and our relationship with the weather. And now, more than ever, we find ourselves in need of it.
August 4th, 2014 by MVH
Majure, L. C., Judd, W. S., Ionta, G. M., Skean, J. D., Becquer, E. R., & Neubig, K. M. (2014). Miconia cineana (Melastomataceae: Miconieae), a New Species from the Massif de la Hotte, Haiti, Based on Morphological and Molecular Evidence. Systematic Botany, 39(3), 906-914.
Abstract: We describe a new species, Miconia cineana (Melastomataceae: Miconieae), from the Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. Although this species has been known from sterile collections since the early 1980s, its phylogenetic position was unknown, although it was presumed to be closely related to species of Pachyanthus s. 1. The phylogenetic reconstruction presented here, based on a recent collection of the species, clearly places M. cineana in a clade comprised of Cuban species of the polyphyletic genera Tetrazygia s. I. and Pachyanthus s. 1. Thus, M. cineana represents the sole Hispaniolan member of an otherwise Cuban clade, and an uncommon biogeographic pattern in melastomes. Miconia cineana, although described here from sterile specimens, is easily distinguished from the other species of this clade using vegetative morphology, as well as phylogenetic placement. This study highlights the utility of molecular data when coupled with morphology, allowing for the discovery of an unrecognized species in a region of high diversity and endemism, i.e. the Massif de la Hotte.
July 23rd, 2014 by MVH
Chase, B., Meiggs, D., Ajithprasad, P., & Slater, P. A. (2014). Pastoral land-use of the Indus Civilization in Gujarat: faunal analyses and biogenic isotopes at Bagasra. Journal of Archaeological Science, 50, 1-15.
Abstract: The Indus Civilization (2600–1900 BC) in Gujarat is characterized by a series of small yet monumentally walled settlements located along trade and travel corridors. The manufacture and use of typically Harappan material culture at these settlements demonstrates that many residents of these sites participated in exchange and interaction networks that linked them to distant Indus cities. Less is known, however, regarding the ways in which the residents of these sites were situated into their local landscapes. Here we combine previously published faunal analyses from the small walled settlement of Bagasra in the Indian state of Gujarat, with a preliminary investigation of intra- and inter-individual variation in the ratios of biogenic isotopes of strontium (87Sr/86Sr), carbon (δ13C), and oxygen (δ18O) in the tooth enamel of domestic animals consumed at the site. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the teeth of sheep and goats exhibit little intra- or inter-individual variation suggesting that most were raised locally while greater inter-individual variation in the teeth of cattle suggesting that nearly half of these animals were either raised further afield or were supplied with fodder raised elsewhere. δ13C values from these same samples in the teeth of sheep and goats exhibit considerable intra-individual variation suggesting of a seasonally variable diet incorporating significant wild forage while uniformly higher values in the teeth of cattle suggest that they consumed mostly agricultural produce throughout the year. δ18O values in the teeth of both sets of domestic livestock exhibit considerable intra-individual variation commensurate with the seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall characteristic of the region while variation between taxa is consistent with observed dietary differences. Taken together, our findings provide new information regarding the ways in which the domestic animals consumed at Bagasra were raised and obtained while establishing an empirical baseline necessary for further exploration of the land-use changes that may have accompanied the emergence and decline of South Asia’s first urban civilization.
July 23rd, 2014 by MVH
Reimann, D. A. (2013). Symmetric interlace patterns on polyhedra using generalized truchet tiles. Symmetry: Culture and Science, 24(1-4), 185-190.
July 23rd, 2014 by MVH
McCauley, A. (Artist). (2014). “Passage 13″. Drawing. Exhibited at: 5th Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Drawing, University of North Carolina, Asheville, January 17-March 17, 2014.
July 23rd, 2014 by MVH
Pifer, M. J., & Baker, V. L. (2014). “It could be just because I’m different”: Otherness and its outcomes in doctoral education. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 7(1), 14-30.
Abstract: For students who view themselves as different from the majority and those in positions of influence, doctoral education may present challenges beyond the typical pressures and stresses of the graduate student experience. In this article, we report findings from a qualitative study of otherness as described by 31 full-time doctoral students in two academic departments within one university. We explore identity-based otherness and its related outcomes for students and the academy. Findings from our analysis of interview data indicate that doctoral students experience otherness across a diverse range of characteristics related to professional, relational, and personal components of their identities. Findings also indicate that experiences of otherness may prevent students from viewing themselves as accepted and supported members of departmental, disciplinary, and professional communities. We conclude with implications for research and practice.
July 21st, 2014 by MVH
Chase, B., Ajithprasad, P., Rajesh, S. V., Patel, A., & Sharma, B. (2014). Materializing Harappan identities: Unity and diversity in the borderlands of the Indus Civilization. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 35, 63-78.
Abstract: The widespread distribution of Harappan material culture throughout a vast expanse of northwestern South Asia is a defining characteristic of the Indus Civilization (2600–1900 BC). The social dynamics responsible for this material pattern, however, are not fully understood. While top-down perspectives on interregional interaction explain some aspects of the material record in the Indian state of Gujarat, they do not explain the material diversity that we observe at Indus settlements in Gujarat. Here, we undertake a bottom-up exploration of Harappan material culture at two small, recently excavated Indus settlements in Gujarat. Our findings show that although the residents of both sites participated in the interregional economy and publically displayed a common Harappan identity, there is evidence for considerable variation in the domestic practices characteristic of each site. We interpret these to suggest that the residents of these sites were integrated into the wider Indus Civilization by way of inclusionary ideologies that served to unify socially diverse borderland communities. These findings and interpretations regarding the role of material culture in the mediation of local social dynamics in the Indus borderlands contribute to a more complete understanding of South Asia’s first urban society while offering methodological and theoretical perspectives that further the exploration of these issues in early complex societies more generally.
July 15th, 2014 by MVH
Sakulthaew, C., Comfort, S., Chokejaroenrat, C., Harris, C., & Li, X. (2014). A combined chemical and biological approach to transforming and mineralizing PAHs in runoff water. Chemosphere, 117, 1-9.
Abstract: The water quality of lakes, rivers and streams associated with metropolitan areas is declining from increased inputs of urban runoff that contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Our objective was to transform and mineralize PAHs in runoff using a combined chemical and biological approach. Using 14C-labeled phenanthrene, 14C-benzo(a)pyrene and a mixture of 16 PAHs, we found that ozone transformed all PAHs in a H2O matrix within minutes but complete mineralization to CO2 took several weeks. When urban runoff water (7.6 mg C L−1) replaced H2O as the background matrix, some delays in degradation rates were observed but transforming a mixture of PAHs was still complete within 10 min. Comparing the biodegradability of the ozonated products to the parent structures in unsaturated soil microcosms showed that the 3-ring phenanthrene was more biodegradable (as evidence by 14CO2 released) than its ozonated products but for the 5-ring benzo(a)pyrene, the products produced by ozone were much more biodegradable (22% vs. 3% mineralized). For phenanthrene, we identified diphenaldehyde as the initial degradation product produced from ozonation. By continuing to pump the ozonated products (14C-labeled diphenaldehyde or ozone-treated benzo(a)pyrene) onto glass beads coated with microorganisms, we verified that biological mineralization could be achieved in a flow-through system and mineralization rates improved with acclimation of the microbial population (i.e., time and exposure to the substrate). These results support a combined ozone and biological approach to treating PAHs in urban runoff water.