Zhen Li

December 18th, 2014 by MVH

Li, Z., & Liao, Q. (2014). Network pricing: can both ISP and P2P benefit? International Journal of Network Management, 24(6), 433-449.

Abstract: Internet service providers are facing increasing back pressure from rising access demand by users, especially peer-to-peer (P2P)-based applications that greatly enhance the large-scale distribution of content into and out of their networks. With the ever increasing consumption pressure on scarce bandwidth resources, ISPs have been forced to reconsider their business model of overselling all-you-can-eat’ broadband at flat rates. Technical solutions such as traffic differentiation or blocking violate the principle of network neutrality; traffic shaping and deep packet analysis fall short in the presence of encryption; and P4P (localized P2P)-based solutions are difficult to achieve in a heterogeneous environment. Economically, various usage-based pricing schemes have been proposed and discussed. While they can improve efficiency in bandwidth consumption, they tend to face strong customer resistance as users have strong preference in favour of simple flat rates. We argue that any feasible pricing reforms cannot deviate much from the current flat rates while providing financial incentives for bandwidth hogs to limit their bandwidth access. In contrast to normal usage-based pricing models that charge by volume, we propose a temporal-based pricing model that may generate a mutually beneficial solution that can not only increase the profitability of ISPs but also accommodate P2P, rather than killing it, without changing the software, protocols or hardware that clients or ISPs use on the network. (Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)

Brad Chase

December 10th, 2014 by MVH

Gadekar, C., Rajesh, S. V., Shaikh, S., Chase, B., Rawat, Y. S., Patel, A., et al. (2014). Typological Analysis of Chalcolithic Lithic Assemblage from Navinal, District Kachchh, Gujarat, Western India. Man and Environment, 39(1), 92-105.

Abstract: Recent explorations at the site of Navinal, Kachchh District, Gujarat has brought to light interesting evidence regarding the co-existence of regional Chalcolithic culture with Urban Harappans. This integration is reflected in various archaeological artefacts collected from the site. Lithic assemblages are an integral part of Chalcolithic cultures and are known to provide important evidence regarding trade and technology. The lithic assemblage recovered from the site has given proof of long distance trade/contact and adaptation of a new technique of the lithic blade production.

Carrie Booth Walling

December 4th, 2014 by MVH

Walling, C. B., & Waltz, S. (2014). Putting the Puzzle Pieces Together: Human Rights Advocacy and the History of International Human Rights Standards Website. Human Rights Quarterly, 36(4), 905-914.

Abstract: Human Rights Advocacy and the History of International Human Rights Standards (http://humanrightshistory.umich.edu) explores the development and evolution of international human rights policy. This website is a useful teaching tool for instructors and a resource for practitioners interested in the standard setting work of the human rights movement and the intellectual history of human rights policy. It is organized around five thematic areas where human rights organizations have significantly contributed to policy: identifying human rights problems, promoting policy mechanisms within the UN system, establishing accountability for human rights abuse, developing research methodologies, and setting the agenda for future standard setting and advocacy work.

Mareike Wieth, Andrea Francis and Sam McIlhagga

November 14th, 2014 by MVH

Sovansky, E. E., Wieth, M. B., Francis, A. P., & McIlhagga, S. D. (2014). Not all musicians are creative: Creativity requires more than simply playing music. Psychology of Music.

Abstract: Musical training has been found to be associated with increased creativity. However, it is not clear whether increased creativity, particularly divergent thinking, is associated with music expertise due to knowledge and skill, or if increased creativity arises from participation in the creation of music through practices such as improvisation and composition. This study investigated how level of music expertise and engagement in the creation of music relate to divergent thinking in musically trained adults (musicians). Sixty participants of varying music expertise were tested for divergent thinking using a modified version of Guilford’s (1967) alternative uses task, in which participants listed creative uses for two music items and two non-music items. Results indicate that musicians who create music listed more creative uses for music items than non-musicians and musicians who do not create music. For non-music items, participants did not display differences in divergent thinking.

Albion College Student Co-Author: Erin Sovansky, ’13

Aaron Miller

November 14th, 2014 by MVH

Hamel, D. R., Shalm, L. K., Hubel, H., Miller, A. J., Marsili, F., Verma, V. B., et al. (2014). Direct generation of three-photon polarization entanglement. Nature Photonics, 8(10).

Abstract: Non-classical states of light are of fundamental importance for emerging quantum technologies. All optics experiments producing multi-qubit entangled states have until now relied on outcome post-selection, a procedure where only the measurement results corresponding to the desired state are considered. This method severely limits the usefulness of the resulting entangled states. Here, we show the direct production of polarization-entangled photon triplets by cascading two entangled downconversion processes. Detecting the triplets with high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors allows us to fully characterize them through quantum state tomography. We use our three-photon entangled state to demonstrate the ability to herald Bell states, a task that was not possible with previous three-photon states, and test local realism by violating the Mermin and Svetlichny inequalities. These results represent a significant breakthrough for entangled multi-photon state production by eliminating the constraints of outcome post-selection, providing a novel resource for optical quantum information processing.

Christopher Hagerman

November 6th, 2014 by MVH

Hagerman, C. A. (2014). Weapons: Catapult Bolts, Arrowheads, Javelin and Spear Heads, and Sling Bullets. In G. P. Schaus (Ed.), Stymphalos : the acropolis sanctuary. Volume 1 (pp. 79-102). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Abstract: The buildings and artefacts uncovered by Canadian excavations at Stymphalos (1994–2001) shed light on the history and cult of a small sanctuary on the acropolis of the ancient city. The thirteen detailed studies collected in Stymphalos: The Acropolis Sanctuary illuminate a variety of aspects of the site. Epigraphical evidence confirms that both Athena and Eileithyia, goddess of childbirth, were worshipped in the sanctuary between the fourth and second centuries BCE. The temple and service buildings are modest in size and materials, but the temple floor and pillar shrine suggest that certain stones and bedrock outcrops were held as sacred objects. Earrings, finger rings, and other jewelry, along with almost 100 loomweights, indicate that women were prominent in cult observances. Many iron projectile points (arrowheads and catapult bolts) suggest that the sanctuary was destroyed in a violent attack around the mid-second century, possibly by the Romans. A modest sanctuary in a modest Arcadian city-state, the acropolis sanctuary at Stymphalos will be a major point of reference for all archaeologists and historians studying ancient Arcadia and all southern Greece in the future.

Thom Wilch

October 30th, 2014 by MVH

Antibus, J. V., Panter, K. S., Wilch, T. I., Dunbar, N., McIntosh, W., Tripati, A., et al. (2014). Alteration of volcaniclastic deposits at Minna Bluff: Geochemical insights on mineralizing environment and climate during the Late Miocene in Antarctica. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 15(8), 3258-3280.

Abstract: Secondary minerals in volcaniclastic deposits at Minna Bluff, a 45 km long peninsula in the Ross Sea, are used to infer processes of alteration and environmental conditions in the Late Miocene. Glassy volcaniclastic deposits are altered and contain phillipsite and chabazite, low to high-Mg carbonates, chalcedony, and clay. The δ18O of carbonates and chalcedony is variable, ranging from −0.50 to 21.53‰ and 0.68 to 10.37‰, respectively, and δD for chalcedony is light (−187.8 to −220.6‰), corresponding to Antarctic meteoric water. A mean carbonate 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70327 ± 0.0009 (1σ, n  = 12) is comparable to lava and suggests freshwater, as opposed to seawater, caused the alteration. Minerals were precipitated at elevated temperatures (91 and 104°C) based on quartz-calcite equilibrium, carbonate 13C-18C thermometry (Δ47 derived temperature = 5° to 43°C) and stability of zeolites in geothermal systems (>10 to ∼100°C). The alteration was a result of isolated, ephemeral events involving the exchange between heated meteoric water and glass during or soon after the formation of each deposit. Near-surface evaporative distillation can explain 18O-enriched compositions for some Mg-rich carbonates and chalcedony. The δ18Owater calculated for carbonates (−15.8 to −22.9‰) reveals a broad change, becoming heavier between ∼12 and ∼7 Ma, consistent with a warming climate. These findings are independently corroborated by the interpretation of Late Miocene sedimentary sequences recovered from nearby sediment cores. However, in contrast to a cold-based thermal regime proposed for ice flow at core sites, wet-based conditions prevailed at Minna Bluff; a likely consequence of high heat flow associated with an active magma system.

Jon Hooks

October 24th, 2014 by MVH

Hooks, J., & Erdman, S. (2014). Turnover And Closed-End Fund Discounts. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 12(4), 335-338.

Abstract: This paper seeks to further investigate the quandary of closed-end fund discounts known as the “four-piece puzzle.” While other researchers have taken a behavior approach (investor sentiment, etc.), this study will explore empirical data on several variables, including some Fama-French factors. Using a fixed effects model, the effects of turnover, three-year-beta, price/book, median market capitalization, expenses and income were measured in this study.

Albion College Student Co-Author: Sarah Erdman, ’14

Brad Rabquer

October 24th, 2014 by MVH

Rabquer, B. J., & Koch, A. E. (2014). Microvascular clues to hemiplegia-induced asymmetric RA. Nature Reviews Rheumatology, advance online publication.

Abstract: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis who are hemiplegic, and also mice with denervated hindpaws and experimentally-induced arthritis, can develop unilateral arthritis. But is a specific branch of the nervous system involved in this asymmetry, or does a lack of innervation alter the microvasculature and promote vascular impermeability?

Vicki Baker

October 23rd, 2014 by MVH

Kish-Gephart, J., Detert, J., Treviño, L., Baker, V., & Martin, S. (2014). Situational Moral Disengagement: Can the Effects of Self-Interest be Mitigated? Journal of Business Ethics, 125(2), 267-285.

Abstract: Self-interest has long been recognized as a powerful human motive. Yet, much remains to be understood about the thinking behind self-interested pursuits. Drawing from multiple literatures, we propose that situations high in opportunity for self-interested gain trigger a type of moral cognition called moral disengagement that allows the individual to more easily disengage internalized moral standards. We also theorize two countervailing forces—situational harm to others and dispositional conscientiousness—that may weaken the effects of personal gain on morally disengaged reasoning. We test our hypotheses in two studies using qualitative and quantitative data and complementary research methods and design. We demonstrate that when personal gain incentives are relatively moderate, reminders of harm to others can reduce the likelihood that employees will morally disengage. Furthermore, when strong personal gain incentives are present in a situation, highly conscientious individuals are less apt than their counterparts to engage in morally disengaged reasoning.

Glenn Deutsch

October 23rd, 2014 by MVH

Deutsch, G. (2014). Little guy (Short story). Confrontation, 115, 39-56.

Nonye Alozie and Claire Mitchell

October 16th, 2014 by MVH

Alozie, N., & Mitchell, C. (2014). Getting Students Talking: Supporting Classroom Discussion Practices in Inquiry-Based Science in Real-Time Teaching. The American Biology Teacher, 76(8), 501-506.

Abstract: Why is it so hard to get students talking in science class? Who is responsible? Are the students unwilling to speak in class? What kinds of supports are helpful for in-the-moment teaching during classroom discussions in science? We present one high school teacher’s facilitation of science discussions while supported by a dialogic discussion structure that was collaboratively developed through professional-development workshops. Our findings provide a real-time teaching tool for teachers working toward integrating inquiry-based science discussions in their classrooms.

Eric Hill

October 15th, 2014 by MVH

Hill, E., Terrell, H., Arellano, A., Schuetz, B., & Nagoshi, C. (2014). A Good Story: Using Future Life Narratives to Predict Present Well-Being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1-20.

Abstract: The present research examined the predictive and nomological validity of a narrative method for assessing goals. College students (N = 337, 158 women, M age = 19.08) from a large, public university wrote short narratives about their best possible selves in the future, imagining that they had realized all of their life dreams. Narratives were coded in terms of the number of statements reflecting each of fourteen types of goals. Intercoder reliability was strong. With regard to predictive validity, intrinsic goals, particularly spiritual and intimacy goals were positively related to well-being. Extrinsic goals, power goals in particular, tended to be negatively related to well-being. With regard to nomological validity, the spiritual goals-well-being relationship was mediated by frequency of religious service attendance and self-report measures of religiosity. Interestingly, intrinsic goals were negatively related to life satisfaction. Results are discussed in the context of self-determination theory and the internalization of extrinsic motivations.

Albion College Student Co-Author: Blake Schuetz, ’13

Mark Bollman

October 13th, 2014 by MVH

Bollman, M. (2014). Basic gambling mathematics : the numbers behind the neon. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

“Basic Gambling Mathematics: The Numbers Behind the Neon explains the mathematics involved in analyzing games of chance, including casino games, horse racing, and lotteries. The book helps readers understand the mathematical reasons why some gambling games are better for the player than others. Along with discussing the mathematics of well-known casino games, the author examines game variations that have been proposed or used in actual casinos. Numerous examples illustrate the mathematical ideas in a range of casino games while end-of-chapter exercises go beyond routine calculations to give readers hands-on experience with casino-related computations. The book begins with a brief historical introduction and mathematical preliminaries before developing the essential results and applications of elementary probability, including the important idea of mathematical expectation. The author then addresses probability questions arising from a variety of games, including roulette, craps, baccarat, blackjack, Caribbean stud poker, Royal Roulette, and sic bo. The final chapter explores the mathematics behind “get rich quick” schemes, such as the martingale and the Iron Cross, and shows how simple mathematics uncovers the flaws in these systems.” (Publisher’s description)

Bille Wickre, Anne McCauley

October 9th, 2014 by MVH

Wickre, B., Martin, J., & McCauley, A. (Eds.). (2014). Images of Women in the Albion College Print Collection. Albion, MI: Celandine Press/Albion College Department of Art and Art History.

Abstract: Images of women in prints from the 15th century to the present in the Albion College Print Collection. Contributions from students and faculty.

Albion College Student Co-Author: Jason Martin, ’12

Daniel Mittag

October 1st, 2014 by MVH

Mittag, D. M. (2014). A Meno Problem for Evidentialism. Southern Journal of Philosophy, 52(2), 250-266.

Abstract: The original Meno problem is to explain why knowledge is more valuable than mere true belief. In this paper I argue that evidentialists face an additional Meno problem, a Meno problem that, to date, no evidentialist has considered. Specifically, evidentialists must account for the additional epistemic value of a doxastically justified doxastic attitude as compared to a doxastic attitude that is merely propositionally justified. I consider the nature of the problem facing evidentialism and critically discuss two attempts to account for this additional epistemic value. Then, I highlight the remaining options and present the alternative I favor. According to this alternative, while the nature of doxastic justification is analyzed in terms of propositional justification, the value of doxastic justification is not. Holding a doxastic attitude on the basis of propositionally justifying evidence is a fundamental epistemic good. In virtue of this, doxastically justified doxastic attitudes have fundamental epistemic value.

Nels Christensen

October 1st, 2014 by MVH

Christensen, N. A. (2014). Facing the Weather in James Galvin’s The Meadow and Cormac McCarthy’s The Road. Isle-Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment, 21(1), 192-204.

This is an essay about the weather and the power of the imagination. What I have to say is as much for people outside of the academy as it is for those of us within it. In the academy, and even within the circles of environmental literary criticism, it might seem romantic or naïve or old fashioned to suggest that the imaginative potency of literature can change values and behavior. But that is precisely what I believe—that reading literature can alter the way we imagine ourselves and our relationship with the weather. And now, more than ever, we find ourselves in need of it.

Dan Skean

August 4th, 2014 by MVH

Majure, L. C., Judd, W. S., Ionta, G. M., Skean, J. D., Becquer, E. R., & Neubig, K. M. (2014). Miconia cineana (Melastomataceae: Miconieae), a New Species from the Massif de la Hotte, Haiti, Based on Morphological and Molecular Evidence. Systematic Botany, 39(3), 906-914.

Abstract: We describe a new species, Miconia cineana (Melastomataceae: Miconieae), from the Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. Although this species has been known from sterile collections since the early 1980s, its phylogenetic position was unknown, although it was presumed to be closely related to species of Pachyanthus s. 1. The phylogenetic reconstruction presented here, based on a recent collection of the species, clearly places M. cineana in a clade comprised of Cuban species of the polyphyletic genera Tetrazygia s. I. and Pachyanthus s. 1. Thus, M. cineana represents the sole Hispaniolan member of an otherwise Cuban clade, and an uncommon biogeographic pattern in melastomes. Miconia cineana, although described here from sterile specimens, is easily distinguished from the other species of this clade using vegetative morphology, as well as phylogenetic placement. This study highlights the utility of molecular data when coupled with morphology, allowing for the discovery of an unrecognized species in a region of high diversity and endemism, i.e. the Massif de la Hotte.

Ola Olapade

July 28th, 2014 by MVH

Olapade, O. A., & Ronk, A. J. (2014). Isolation, Characterization and Community Diversity of Indigenous Putative Toluene-Degrading Bacterial Populations with Catechol-2,3-Dioxygenase Genes in Contaminated Soils. Microbial Ecology, 1-7.

Abstract: Indigenous bacterial assemblages with putative hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities were isolated, characterized and screened for the presence of the catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) gene after exposure to toluene in two different (i.e., pristine and conditioned) soil communities. The indigenous bacterial populations were exposed to the hydrocarbon substrate by the addition of toluene concentrations, ranging from 0.5 % to 10 % V/W in 10 g of each soil and incubated at 30 °C for upwards of 12 days. In total, 25 isolates (11 in pristine soil and 14 in conditioned soil) were phenotypically characterized according to standard microbiological methods and also screened for the 238-bp C23O gene fragment. Additionally, 16S rRNA analysis of the isolates identified some of them as belonging to the genera Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas. Furthermore, the two clone libraries that were constructed from these toluene-contaminated soils also revealed somewhat disparate phylotypes (i.e., 70 % Actinobacteria and Firmicutes to 30 % Proteobacteria in conditioned soil, whereas in pristine soil: 66 % Actinobacteria and Firmicutes; 21 % Proteobacteria and 13 % Bacteroidetes). The differences observed in bacterial phylotypes between these two soil communities may probably be associated with previous exposure to hydrocarbon sources by indigenous populations in the conditioned soil as compared to the pristine soil.

Albion College student co-author: Adam Ronk, ’13

Brad Chase

July 23rd, 2014 by MVH

Chase, B., Meiggs, D., Ajithprasad, P., & Slater, P. A. (2014). Pastoral land-use of the Indus Civilization in Gujarat: faunal analyses and biogenic isotopes at Bagasra. Journal of Archaeological Science, 50, 1-15.

Abstract: The Indus Civilization (2600–1900 BC) in Gujarat is characterized by a series of small yet monumentally walled settlements located along trade and travel corridors. The manufacture and use of typically Harappan material culture at these settlements demonstrates that many residents of these sites participated in exchange and interaction networks that linked them to distant Indus cities. Less is known, however, regarding the ways in which the residents of these sites were situated into their local landscapes. Here we combine previously published faunal analyses from the small walled settlement of Bagasra in the Indian state of Gujarat, with a preliminary investigation of intra- and inter-individual variation in the ratios of biogenic isotopes of strontium (87Sr/86Sr), carbon (δ13C), and oxygen (δ18O) in the tooth enamel of domestic animals consumed at the site. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the teeth of sheep and goats exhibit little intra- or inter-individual variation suggesting that most were raised locally while greater inter-individual variation in the teeth of cattle suggesting that nearly half of these animals were either raised further afield or were supplied with fodder raised elsewhere. δ13C values from these same samples in the teeth of sheep and goats exhibit considerable intra-individual variation suggesting of a seasonally variable diet incorporating significant wild forage while uniformly higher values in the teeth of cattle suggest that they consumed mostly agricultural produce throughout the year. δ18O values in the teeth of both sets of domestic livestock exhibit considerable intra-individual variation commensurate with the seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall characteristic of the region while variation between taxa is consistent with observed dietary differences. Taken together, our findings provide new information regarding the ways in which the domestic animals consumed at Bagasra were raised and obtained while establishing an empirical baseline necessary for further exploration of the land-use changes that may have accompanied the emergence and decline of South Asia’s first urban civilization.

David Reimann

July 23rd, 2014 by MVH

Reimann, D. A. (2013). Symmetric interlace patterns on polyhedra using generalized truchet tiles. Symmetry: Culture and Science, 24(1-4), 185-190.


Anne McCauley

July 23rd, 2014 by MVH

McCauley, A. (Artist). (2014). “Passage 13″. Drawing. Exhibited at: 5th Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Drawing, University of North Carolina, Asheville, January 17-March 17, 2014.


Vicki Baker

July 23rd, 2014 by MVH

Pifer, M. J., & Baker, V. L. (2014). “It could be just because I’m different”: Otherness and its outcomes in doctoral education. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 7(1), 14-30.

Abstract: For students who view themselves as different from the majority and those in positions of influence, doctoral education may present challenges beyond the typical pressures and stresses of the graduate student experience. In this article, we report findings from a qualitative study of otherness as described by 31 full-time doctoral students in two academic departments within one university. We explore identity-based otherness and its related outcomes for students and the academy. Findings from our analysis of interview data indicate that doctoral students experience otherness across a diverse range of characteristics related to professional, relational, and personal components of their identities. Findings also indicate that experiences of otherness may prevent students from viewing themselves as accepted and supported members of departmental, disciplinary, and professional communities. We conclude with implications for research and practice.

Brad Chase

July 21st, 2014 by MVH

Chase, B., Ajithprasad, P., Rajesh, S. V., Patel, A., & Sharma, B. (2014). Materializing Harappan identities: Unity and diversity in the borderlands of the Indus Civilization. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 35, 63-78.

Abstract: The widespread distribution of Harappan material culture throughout a vast expanse of northwestern South Asia is a defining characteristic of the Indus Civilization (2600–1900 BC). The social dynamics responsible for this material pattern, however, are not fully understood. While top-down perspectives on interregional interaction explain some aspects of the material record in the Indian state of Gujarat, they do not explain the material diversity that we observe at Indus settlements in Gujarat. Here, we undertake a bottom-up exploration of Harappan material culture at two small, recently excavated Indus settlements in Gujarat. Our findings show that although the residents of both sites participated in the interregional economy and publically displayed a common Harappan identity, there is evidence for considerable variation in the domestic practices characteristic of each site. We interpret these to suggest that the residents of these sites were integrated into the wider Indus Civilization by way of inclusionary ideologies that served to unify socially diverse borderland communities. These findings and interpretations regarding the role of material culture in the mediation of local social dynamics in the Indus borderlands contribute to a more complete understanding of South Asia’s first urban society while offering methodological and theoretical perspectives that further the exploration of these issues in early complex societies more generally.

Cliff Harris

July 15th, 2014 by MVH

Sakulthaew, C., Comfort, S., Chokejaroenrat, C., Harris, C., & Li, X. (2014). A combined chemical and biological approach to transforming and mineralizing PAHs in runoff water. Chemosphere, 117, 1-9.

Abstract: The water quality of lakes, rivers and streams associated with metropolitan areas is declining from increased inputs of urban runoff that contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Our objective was to transform and mineralize PAHs in runoff using a combined chemical and biological approach. Using 14C-labeled phenanthrene, 14C-benzo(a)pyrene and a mixture of 16 PAHs, we found that ozone transformed all PAHs in a H2O matrix within minutes but complete mineralization to CO2 took several weeks. When urban runoff water (7.6 mg C L−1) replaced H2O as the background matrix, some delays in degradation rates were observed but transforming a mixture of PAHs was still complete within 10 min. Comparing the biodegradability of the ozonated products to the parent structures in unsaturated soil microcosms showed that the 3-ring phenanthrene was more biodegradable (as evidence by 14CO2 released) than its ozonated products but for the 5-ring benzo(a)pyrene, the products produced by ozone were much more biodegradable (22% vs. 3% mineralized). For phenanthrene, we identified diphenaldehyde as the initial degradation product produced from ozonation. By continuing to pump the ozonated products (14C-labeled diphenaldehyde or ozone-treated benzo(a)pyrene) onto glass beads coated with microorganisms, we verified that biological mineralization could be achieved in a flow-through system and mineralization rates improved with acclimation of the microbial population (i.e., time and exposure to the substrate). These results support a combined ozone and biological approach to treating PAHs in urban runoff water.

W. Jeffrey Wilson

July 14th, 2014 by MVH

Wilson, W. J., Ferrara, N. C., Blaker, A. L., & Giddings, C. E. (2014). Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis. PeerJ, 2, e250.

Abstract: Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving “master” worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasing their movement; the behavior of yoked controls had no effect on the light. We demonstrate that in as few as 12 trials the behavior of the master worms comes under the control of this contingency.

Albion College student co-author: Nicole Ferrara, ’12

Albion College student co-author: Amanda Blaker, ’12

Albion College student co-author: Charisa Giddings, ’12

Vanessa McCaffrey, Nicolle Zellner

July 10th, 2014 by MVH

McCaffrey, V. P., Zellner, N. E. B., Waun, C. M., Bennett, E. R., & Earl, E. K. (2014). Reactivity and Survivability of Glycolaldehyde in Simulated Meteorite Impact Experiments. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, 1-14.

Abstract: Sugars of extraterrestrial origin have been observed in the interstellar medium (ISM), in at least one comet spectrum, and in several carbonaceous chondritic meteorites that have been recovered from the surface of the Earth. The origins of these sugars within the meteorites have been debated. To explore the possibility that sugars could be generated during shock events, this paper reports on the results of the first laboratory impact experiments wherein glycolaldehyde, found in the ISM, as well as glycolaldehyde mixed with montmorillonite clay, have been subjected to reverberated shocks from ~5 to >25 GPa. New biologically relevant molecules, including threose, erythrose and ethylene glycol, were identified in the resulting samples. These results show that sugar molecules can not only survive but also become more complex during impact delivery to planetary bodies.

Albion College student co-author: Cassandra Waun, ’13

Albion College student co-author: Erica Bennett, ’13

Albion College student co-author: Erica Earl, ’14

Clayton Parr

July 10th, 2014 by MVH

Linich, C., & Parr, C. (2014). Okro mch’edelo (O Goldsmith). In C. Parr (Ed.): Earthsongs.

Description:  This piece is an equal-voiced setting, with the narrow ranges of each part typical of many Georgian folk songs. It can be sung in the written key nicely by middle school-age or older mixed groups, or women’s groups with some older women who are comfortable with the occasional G below middle C in the bani (bass) part. For a TTB setting, transpose down a major third or fourth. It could be transposed up a step or so for use with young children, but singing the piece any higher than that will change the desired traditional folk tone quality of the sound. Any kind of octave doubling, either above or below, is not characteristic of the Georgian folk tradition and is not recommended.

Allison Harnish

May 15th, 2014 by MVH

Harnish, A. (2014). Extractive workload: a mixed-method approach for investigating the socially differentiated effects of land-use/land-cover changes in a southern Zambian frontier. Population and Environment, 35(4), 455-476.

Abstract: In rural regions across the globe, local natural resources (i.e., “bush” resources) are central to meeting daily household needs. Culturally-influenced gender- and age-based divisions of labor guide the harvesting of these resources and, as a result, shifts in resource availability will differentially affect women, men, girls, and boys. This research brief presents results of an innovative pilot project designed to assess the socially differentiated effects of land-use/land-cover changes (LULCC) on Gwembe Tonga migrants living in Kulaale, an agricultural frontier in southern Zambia. Integrating existing analyses of remotely sensed imagery with a seasonal resource survey and mapping exercise (n = 20 homesteads), this study finds the average extractive workloads (mean annual distance traveled for the collection of bush resources) of women, men, girls, and boys to be both unequal and contrary to recent speculations about the distinctive vulnerability of adult women to environmental change. Drawing on qualitative ethnographic methods—including semi-structured interviews (n = 101), a homestead labor survey (n = 38), participant observation, and references to over fifty years of anthropological research—the author identifies additional variables—including the demographic structure of Kulaale homesteads and the flexible division of subsistence labor—that color Gwembe Tonga migrants’ aged and gendered experiences of LULCC. The study adds important nuance to our understanding of natural resource practices and individual-level vulnerability, particularly in the face of contemporary environmental change.

David Seely

May 13th, 2014 by MVH

Fogle, M., Wulf, D., Morgan, K., McCammon, D., Seely, D. G., Draganić, I. N., et al. (2014). X-ray-emission measurements following charge exchange between C6+ and H2. Physical Review A, 89(4), 042705.

Abstract: Lyman x-ray spectra following charge exchange between C6+ and H2 are presented for collision velocities between 400 and 2300 km/s (1–30 keV/amu). Spectra were measured by a microcalorimeter x-ray detector capable of fully resolving the C vi Lyman series emission lines though Lyman-δ . The ratios of the measured emission lines are sensitive to the angular momentum l states populated during charge exchange and are used to gauge the effectiveness of different l-distribution models in predicting Lyman emission due to charge exchange. At low velocities, we observe that both single-electron-capture and double-electron-capture autoionization contribute to Lyman emission and that a statistical l distribution best describes the measured line ratios. At higher velocities single-electron capture dominates with the l distribution peaked at the maximum l.