Patel, A., Rajesh, S. V., Chase, B., Shaikh, S., Rawat, Y. S., Abhayan, G. S., . . . Renjinimol, M. N. (2014). Indications and Implications of Copper Artifacts from Navinal, A Harappan Site in Kachchh, Gujarat, Western India. Heritage: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology, 2, 545-592.
Abstract: Gujarat has yielded variety of copper artifacts falling into the Indus realm. In the absence of problem oriented studies on copper in Gujarat till date, it is necessary to examine the copper objects from the excavated and explored Harappan sites to enhance our understanding of typology, their technology and use, the trajectory of development of copper metallurgy and its change during the aforesaid period. An endeavor of typological and compositional analyses will enable us in answering many questions about Harappan copper technology. The present paper is a preliminary study of the copper artifacts from the surface collection of the site Navinal, Kachchh, Gujarat. Typological, chemical compositional and micro structural studies were undertaken during this work. The major objects identified are beads, chisel/bar/ingot, hook, knife blade, nail, ring, sheet, spatula, folded strips (tube), wire and prills. Composition analysis revealed Cu‐Sn; Cu‐Zn; and Cu‐Sn‐Zn alloys. The microstructures revealed heat treatments applied while fabrication for increasing its hardness and tensile strength.