Anne Mills McCauley

February 4th, 2016

McCauley, A. M. (Artist). (2016). passage 24. Americas 2016: Paperworks Exhibition, Minot State University, January 12-February 19, 2016.

Marcy Sacks

January 25th, 2016

scott-boxing-coverSacks, M. (2015). Speaking Through Silence? Whites’ Efforts to Make Meaning of Joe Louis. In D. Scott (Ed.), Cultures of Boxing (pp. 47-59). Bern: Peter Lang.


Mareike Wieth, Andrea Francis and Sam McIlhagga

January 11th, 2016

Sovansky, E. E., Wieth, M. B., Francis, A. P., & McIlhagga, S. D. (2016). Not all musicians are creative: Creativity requires more than simply playing music. Psychology of Music, 44(1), 25-36.

Abstract: Musical training has been found to be associated with increased creativity. However, it is not clear whether increased creativity, particularly divergent thinking, is associated with music expertise due to knowledge and skill, or if increased creativity arises from participation in the creation of music through practices such as improvisation and composition. This study investigated how level of music expertise and engagement in the creation of music relate to divergent thinking in musically trained adults (musicians). Sixty participants of varying music expertise were tested for divergent thinking using a modified version of Guilford’s (1967) alternative uses task, in which participants listed creative uses for two music items and two non-music items. Results indicate that musicians who create music listed more creative uses for music items than non-musicians and musicians who do not create music. For non-music items, participants did not display differences in divergent thinking.

Albion College Student Co-Author: Erin Sovansky, ’13

Drew Christopher

December 17th, 2015

Walker, R. J., & Christopher, A. N. (2016). Time-of-day preference mediates the relationship between personality and breakfast attitudes. Personality and Individual Differences, 91, 138-143.

Abstract: Personality and time-of-day preference (i.e., chronotype) are two reliable predictors of breakfast behaviors. The current study examined if time-of-day preference mediates the relation between the Big Five personality traits and breakfast-related attitudes and behaviors. Results revealed that conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness predicted healthy breakfast attitudes and behaviors, whereas neuroticism predicted unhealthy breakfast attitudes and behaviors. Importantly, time-of-day preference mediated most of these relationships (except for the agreeableness models). Even when the direct effect of personality on breakfast attitudes and behaviors was not significant, all of the indirect effects through time-of-day preference were significant. Together, these findings indicate that personality differences in breakfast attitudes and behaviors are accounted for by time-of-day preference. These findings also suggest that future work should examine more integrative models of eating behavior to better understand how various individual differences relate to specific attitudes and behaviors.

Albion College alumnus co-author: Ryan Walker, ’12

Deborah Kanter

December 15th, 2015

Kanter, D. E. (2015). Truly In-between People: Situating Latinos in Twentieth-Century Urban History. Journal of Urban History, 41(6), 1143-1151.

Vicki Baker

November 13th, 2015

Baker, V. L., Lunsford, L. G., & Pifer, M. J. (2015). Systems Alignment for Comprehensive Faculty Development in Liberal Arts Colleges. To Improve the Academy, 34(1-2), 91-116.

Abstract: Using an alignment framework, the authors explore faculty development initiatives in liberal arts colleges in order to understand the connection between organizational priorities and processes as connected to faculty members’ stated needs. The study draws on mixed-methods data from The Initiative for Faculty Development in Liberal Arts Colleges (IFDLAC), including survey and interview data from the 13 member institutions of the Great Lakes Colleges Association (GLCA).The authors offer future implications for faculty development practice.

Mareike Wieth

November 5th, 2015

DeCaro, M. S., Van Stockum, C. A., Jr., & Wieth, M. B. (2016). When Higher Working Memory Capacity Hinders Insight. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42(1), 39-49.

Abstract: Higher working memory capacity (WMC) improves performance on a range of cognitive and academic tasks. However, a greater ability to control attention sometimes leads individuals with higher WMC to persist in using complex, attention-demanding approaches that are suboptimal for a given task. We examined whether higher WMC would hinder insight problem solving, which is thought to rely on associative processes that operate largely outside of close attentional control. In addition, we examined whether characteristics of the insight problems influence whether this negative relationship will be revealed. In Experiment 1, participants completed matchstick arithmetic problems, which require a similar initial problem representation for all problems. Higher WMC was associated with less accurate insight problem solving. In Experiment 2, participants completed insight word problems, which require substantially different representations for each problem. Higher WMC was again negatively associated with insight, but only after statistically controlling for shared variance between insight and incremental problem-solving accuracy. These findings suggest that WMC may benefit performance on fundamental processes common to both incremental and insight problem solving (e.g., initial problem representation), but hinder performance on the processes that are unique to insight (e.g., solution and restructuring). By considering the WMC of the individual, and the nature of the insight task, we may better understand the process of insight and how to best support it.

James Davidson

October 23rd, 2015

Horch, E. P., van Belle, G. T., Davidson, J. W., Jr., Ciastko, L. A., Everett, M. E., & Bjorkman, K. S. (2015). Observations of Binary Stars with the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument. VI. Measures During 2014 at the Discovery Channel Telescope. arXiv:1509.03498.

Abstract: We present the results of 938 speckle measures of double stars and suspected double stars drawn mainly from the Hipparcos Catalogue, as well as 208 observations where no companion was noted. One hundred fourteen pairs have been resolved for the first time. The data were obtained during four observing runs in 2014 using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) at Lowell Observatory’s Discovery Channel Telescope. The measurement precision obtained when comparing to ephemeris positions of binaries with very well-known orbits is generally less than 2 mas in separation and 0.5 degrees in position angle. Differential photometry is found to have internal precision of approximately 0.1 magnitudes and to be in very good agreement with Hipparcos measures in cases where the comparison is most relevant. We also estimate the detection limit in the cases where no companion was found. Visual orbital elements are derived for 6 systems.

Albion College student co-author: Lindsay Ciastko, ’15

Craig Streu

October 15th, 2015

Engdahl, A. J., Torres, E. A., Lock, S. E., Engdahl, T. B., Mertz, P. S., & Streu, C. N. (2015). Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioactivity of the Photoisomerizable Tubulin Polymerization Inhibitor azo-Combretastatin A4. Organic Letters, 17(18), 4546-4549.

Abstract: Combretastatin A4 is a stilbenoid tubulin binding mitotic inhibitor whose conformation greatly influences its potency, making it an excellent candidate for adaptation as a photoactivatable tool. Herein we report a novel synthesis, the facile isomerization with commercial grade equipment, and biological activity of azo-combretastatin A4 in vitro and in human cancer cells. Photoisomerized azo-combretestatin A4 is at least 200-fold more potent in cellular culture, making it a promising phototherapeutic and biomedical research tool.

Benjamin Biermeier-Hanson

October 8th, 2015

Biermeier-Hanson, B. (2015). What About the Rest of Us? The Importance of Organizational Culture in Nepotistic Environments. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 8(01), 27-31.

Abstract: To date, empirical investigations into whether nepotism, specifically, or social connection preference (SCP), generally, is positive or negative within the realm of organizational scholarship has been limited. Indeed, most of the early discussions in this field on the subject have focused on previous work done outside the organizational area (i.e., Bellow, 2003). A recent Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Organizational Frontier Series book on the subject has brought some initial attention to the subject by approaching it from multiple domains within the organizational literature (Jones, 2012). Jones and Stout (2015) have highlighted the possible advantages and disadvantages of SCPs and have taken the stand that SCPs might in fact provide more benefits than drawbacks, particularly given that formalized policies may lead to unfair discrimination.

Ellen Kamischke

October 2nd, 2015

De Winter, S., Kamischke, E., & Wang, Z. (2015). Automorphisms of strongly regular graphs with applications to partial difference sets. Designs, Codes and Cryptography, 1-15.

Abstract: In this article we generalize a theorem of Benson (J Algebra 15:443–454, 1970) for generalized quadrangles to strongly regular graphs, deriving numerical restrictions on the number of fixed vertices and the number of vertices mapped to adjacent vertices under an automorphism. We then use this result to develop a few new techniques to study regular partial difference sets (PDS) in Abelian groups. Ma (Des Codes Cryptogr 4:221–261, 1994) provided a list of parameter sets of regular PDS with k≤100 in Abelian groups for which existence was known or had not been excluded. In particular there were 32 parameter sets for which existence was not known. Ma (J Stat Plan Inference 62:47–56, 1997) excluded 13 of these parameter sets. As an application of our results we here exclude the existence of a regular partial difference set for all but two of the undecided parameter sets from Ma’s list.

Cliff Harris

September 25th, 2015

Sakulthaew, C., Comfort, S. D., Chokejaroenrat, C., Li, X., & Harris, C. E. (2015). Removing PAHs from urban runoff water by combining ozonation and carbon nano-onions. Chemosphere, 141, 265-273.

Abstract: Ozone (O3) is a chemical oxidant capable of transforming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban runoff within minutes but complete oxidation to CO2 can take days to weeks. We developed and tested a flow-through system that used ozone to quickly transform PAHs in a runoff stream and then removed the ozone-transformed PAHs via adsorption to carbon nano-onions (CNOs). To quantify the efficacy of this approach, 14C-labeled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, as well as a mixture of 16 unlabeled PAHs were used as test compounds. These PAHs were pumped from a reservoir into a flow-through reactor that continuously ozonated the solution. Outflow from the reactor then went to a chamber that contained CNOs to adsorb the ozone-transformed PAHs and allowed clean water to pass. By adding a microbial consortium to the CNOs following adsorption, we observed that bacteria were able to degrade the adsorbed products and release more soluble, biodegradable products back into solution. Control treatments confirmed that parent PAH structures (i.e., non-ozonated) were not biologically degraded following CNO adsorption and that O3-transformed PAHs were not released from the CNOs in the absence of bacteria. These results support the combined use of ozone, carbon nano-onions with subsequent biological degradation as a means of removing PAHs from urban runoff or a commercial waste stream.

Jocelyn McWhirter

September 18th, 2015

McWhirter, J. (2015). Luke 16:19–31. Interpretation, 69(4), 463-465.

The parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19–31) forces its listeners into an awkward position. We find ourselves suspended between the rich man’s table and his gate, Abraham and Hades, this world and the next. How can we interpret such a parable? How can we invite our congregations into its disorienting landscape? I suggest that we start by extending its boundaries by understanding it within the context of Luke’s larger story of wealth and poverty, blessings and woes, and the prophet whom God raised from the dead. Then, when we have our bearings, we can start locating ourselves within the parable. Perhaps we recline at the rich man’s table; perhaps we lie at his gate. Either way, the parable challenges us to listen to God’s prophets and adopt God’s values.

Dan Skean

August 24th, 2015

Majure, L. C., Neubig, K. M., Skean, J. D., Bécquer, E. R., & Judd, W. S. (2015). Evolution of the Sandpaper Clade (Miconieae, Melastomataceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences, 176(7), 607-626.

Abstract: The Sandpaper clade comprises a group of taxa endemic to the Greater Antilles and forms a subgroup of a larger Caribbean assemblage of Miconieae. Numerous species within this monophyletic group share striking morphological characters and thus traditionally have been considered close relatives. Recent phylogenetic work has shown that not all of these species are each other’s closest relatives, and they actually form three distinct clades: the Lima, Paralima, and Pseudolima clades. We reconstructed a phylogeny of these poorly known species to test patterns of morphological evolution and the biogeographic history of the clade.

Vicki Baker

August 12th, 2015

Baker, V. L. (2015). People Strategy in Human Resources: Lessons for Mentoring in Higher Education. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 23(1), 6-18.

Abstract: In this article, I offer the notion of alignment, a human resources framework, as a conceptual tool for better informing the development of mentoring programming and policy in higher education. Alignment accounts for both individual and organizational factors as means for providing the necessary connections among human resources and organizational policies and outcomes. The three types of alignment: Vertical (connection between people strategy and business goals), horizontal (connection among individual HR policy areas), and implementation (the degree to which action is taken to put the people strategy into effect) have the potential to improve the efficacy of mentorships, the contextual factors that influences them, and the intended outcomes of these relationships.

Kyle Shanton

August 6th, 2015

Shanton, K. D. (Ed.). (2015). The Most Important Work: Stories of Sovereignty in the Struggle for Literacy. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

This book is a collection of essays that reflect the desire and determination guiding many practitioners and researchers as they work together in more meaningful and relevant ways for literacy. The essays are organized as three series of dialogues in which an academic scholar works with a practitioner, or community leader, on a particular struggle toward teaching, learning and literacy. Together they portray the reflexive relationships involved in their shared endeavor, the different struggles for sovereignty they encountered, what they accomplished together, and what they learned by honoring one another’s knowledge and skill.

The work presented in this book reflect intentional connections among practitioners and researchers in terms of how they engaged with children, youth and families to compose their language, lives and culture into literacy for personal, political and practical purposes that both pertain to, and transcend, contexts of school. Moreover, these narratives highlight a shared commitment to frame and forge such work in nuanced terms of solidarity and sovereignty, rather than as stark assertions of this is what needs to be done and this is how to do it.  (Publisher’s description)

Geoffrey Cocks

August 5th, 2015

Cocks, G. (2015). Hollywood uber alles: seeing the Nazi in American movies. Film & History, 45, 38-53.

Abstract: No figure in fact or in fiction embodies absolute evil as much as the Nazi. The American-movie Nazi drew its initial presence and force from the sheer enormity of Nazi destructive impact on the real world, the Nazis’ own projection of their dark drama onto the movie screens of that world, and the emigration of much German, European, and Jewish talent to Hollywood in the 1930s. Meanwhile, Hollywood largely avoided the subject of Nazism for political and economic reasons. From 1941 on, however, the Nazi figure assumed a place in a wide variety of movie genres, not only because of the fervor of war, but because the Nazi allowed Hollywood to engage American issues of class, race, and power without indicting American culture itself.

Brad Chase

July 31st, 2015

Rajesh, S. V., Shaikh, S., Chase, B., Rawat, Y. S., Patel, A., Abhayan, G. S., et al. (2014). Craft Production at Navinal: A Harappan Settlement in Kachchh District, Gujarat. Atulya Varso, 8, 30-31.

Ola Olapade

July 29th, 2015

Olapade, O. (2015). Phylogenetic Characterization and Community Diversity of Hydrocarbon-Utilizing Bacteria in Soil Microcosms Enriched with Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation, 6(4), 305.

Abstract: The phylogenetic identities and community diversity of indigenous bacterial populations in soil microcosms previously enriched with various mono-aromatic including benzene, ethyl-benzene and xylene (BEX) hydrocarbons were investigated using combinations of culture-based microbiological (phenotypic) as well as molecular (16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing) approaches. A total of 45 bacterial isolates belonging to 5 distinct phyla were phylogenetically characterized among indigenous bacterial populations with putative hydrocarbon-degrading potentials in the soil microcosms. In general, bacterial members belonging to the γ-Proteobacteria (mostly species of Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter) were found to numerically dominate {representing between 60 to 94%} among the isolates from the three BEX-polluted microcosms. While, bacterial members belonging to the β-Proteobacteria (Comamonas and Delftia spp) and Firmicutes (Bacillus spp) were also represented. Results obtained from the community diversity calculations revealed relatively higher species richness in the benzene-spiked soils as compared to the other microcosms. Overall, the differences observed in bacterial phylotypes among the microcosms are probably attributable to the direct effects of the chemical properties of each hydrocarbon pollutant on the indigenous
microbial community.

Heather Betz

July 27th, 2015

Alaimo, K., Carlson, J. J., Pfeiffer, K. A., Eisenmann, J. C., Paek, H.-J., Betz, H. H., et al. (2015). Project FIT: A School, Community and Social Marketing Intervention Improves Healthy Eating Among Low-Income Elementary School Children. Journal of Community Health, 40, 815-826.

Abstract: Project FIT was a two-year multi-component nutrition and physical activity intervention delivered in ethnically-diverse low-income elementary schools in Grand Rapids, MI. This paper reports effects on children’s nutrition outcomes and process evaluation of the school component. A quasi-experimental design was utilized. 3rd, 4th and 5th-grade students (Yr 1 baseline: N = 410; Yr 2 baseline: N = 405; age range: 7.5–12.6 years) were measured in the fall and spring over the two-year intervention. Ordinal logistic, mixed effect models and generalized estimating equations were fitted, and the robust standard errors were utilized. Primary outcomes favoring the intervention students were found regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grain bread during year 2. Process evaluation revealed that implementation of most intervention components increased during year 2. Project FIT resulted in small but beneficial effects on consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain bread in ethnically diverse low-income elementary school children.

Vicki Baker

July 24th, 2015

Baker, V. L., & Baldwin, R. G. (2015). A Case Study of Liberal Arts Colleges in the 21st Century: Understanding Organizational Change and Evolution in Higher Education. Innovative Higher Education, 40(3), 247-261.

Abstract: We draw upon the evolutionary model of change in order to examine the organizational transformation of three liberal arts colleges (Albion College, Allegheny College, Kenyon College). Relying on our prior research (Baker, Baldwin, & Makker, 2012), we seek to continue our exploration and understanding of the evolution occurring in the important liberal arts college sector of higher education. We seek to understand why and how these colleges change, what changes occur, and, especially, what makes liberal arts colleges susceptible to change. The findings of this study have the potential to illuminate change in other types of higher education institutions.

Greg Saltzman

July 24th, 2015

Saltzman, G. M. (2014). The Economics of MOOCs. In H. S. Wechsler (Ed.), The NEA 2014 Almanac of Higher Education (pp. 19-29). Washington: National Education Association.


Carrie Booth Walling

July 23rd, 2015

Walling, C. B. (2015). The UN Security Council and the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights. In J. R. Pruce (Ed.), The Social Practice of Human Rights. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Publisher’s description: The Social Practice of Human Rights bridges the conventional scholar-practitioner divide by focusing on the space in between. In capturing this cutting edge research program, the volume proposes a perspective that motivates critical self-reflection of the strategies that drive communities dedicated to the advocacy and implementation of human rights. The social practice of human rights takes place not in front of a judge, but in the streets and alleys, in the backrooms and out-of-the-way places where change occurs. Contributors to this volume investigate the contexts and efforts of activists and professionals devoted to promoting human rights norms. This research takes as its subject the organizations and movements that shoulder the burden of improving respect for human dignity—and through a constructive critique of these patterns and practices, scholarship can have a positive impact on the political world.

Nels Christensen

July 16th, 2015

Christensen, N. A. (2014). Learning Where the Weather Is Real: Why Teaching in Bad Weather Is Good. Resilience: A Journal of the Environmental Humanities, 1(3), 100-106.

Teach outdoors. Make your teaching outdoors make sense. And teach outdoors when the weather is bad.

For most educators, that first imperative—teach outdoors—probably isn’t such a hard idea to swallow. After all, it’s a rare teacher who hasn’t at one point or another succumbed to the pull of sunny skies, warm weather, and a classroom full of students pleading to “go outside.” Faced with this particular mixture of circumstances, it seems only right and natural to leave the indoor classroom behind, walk out to the quad, and circle up on a neatly trimmed lawn.

But there’s something about that second imperative—make your teaching outdoors make sense—that asks us to move beyond the basic impulse to escape the stuffy indoors in favor of fresh air, something that encourages us to think critically about the shaping influence of place in education. In the past decade, this interest in the relationship among where, what, and how we teach has motivated important work from child advocates, such as Richard Louv’s Last Child in the Woods (2006) and Christopher Cook’s Where Do the Children Play? (2007), a pbs documentary inspired by Elizabeth Goodenough’s Secret Spaces of Childhood (2003). The connections between self and place also form the common bond among those of us engaged in what is variously called environmental, outdoor, experiential, or place-based education.   (Excerpt from publisher)


David Reimann

July 15th, 2015

Reimann, D. A. (2014). Art and Symmetry of Scottish Carved Stone Balls. Proceedings of Bridges 2014: Mathematics, Music, Art, Architecture, Culture (2014), 441-444.

Abstract: Over 425 Neolithic stone balls with carved knobs have been found in northern Scotland. There is no recorded use of these objects, which has resulted in much speculation about their purpose. In some cases, the symmetry of the knob placements is consistent with symmetry associated with Platonic solids. However, these objects are clearly not polyhedra and thus do not represent examples of Platonic solids, despite recent claims to that effect. Examples are shown along with pictures of modern art that they have inspired. Their symmetric form contributes to their aesthetic appeal, thus they can be considered very early examples of mathematical art.

Heather Betz

July 13th, 2015

Betz, H. H., Myers, J., Jaffe, A., & Smith, K. (2015). Reproducibility of the Veterans Physical Activity Questionnaire in an Elderly Population. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 12(3), 376-381.

Abstract: Background:Quantifying lifetime physical activity using self-reported measures is challenging due to reliance on recall, especially in older populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the 1-year reproducibility of the Veterans Physical Activity Questionnaire (VAPAQ) in a cohort of patients with documented abdominal aortic aneurysm disease (AAA). Methods: Subjects included men (n = 52) and women (n = 3) enrolled in AAA STOP, a randomized trial designed to test the ability of supervised exercise training to modify AAA biology and early disease progression. Results: The overall correlation coefficient for lifetime recreational energy expenditure between the 2 examinations was 0.93 (P < .001), with an overall difference of 26 kcal/week, a typical error (standard deviation of the differences) of 171 kcals/week, and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 15.5%. Conclusions: The VAPAQ is a reproducible tool to quantify lifetime energy expenditure in older adults with documented vascular disease.

Claire Mitchell and Nonye Alozie

July 13th, 2015

Mitchell, C. E., Alozie, N. M., & Wathington, H. D. (2015). Investigating the Potential of Community College Developmental Summer Bridge Programs in Facilitating Student Adjustment to Four-Year Institutions. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 39(4), 366-382.

Abstract: This study examines whether community college developmental summer bridge programs (DSBPs) can help students acquire the academic and college knowledge needed to attend and succeed at a four-year higher education institution. In-depth interviews with 14 participants at nine four-year institutions in Texas were conducted two years after their random assignment into one of four four-week long community college DSBPs. The interviews reinforced the value of such programs in affording key validating and socializing experiences as well as illuminate program limitations in managing student expectations and providing institution-specific college knowledge for students who will matriculate at a four-year institution subsequent to program participation.

Vicki Baker

July 8th, 2015

Pifer, M. J., Baker, V. L., & Lunsford, L. G. (2015). Academic departments as networks of informal learning: faculty development at liberal arts colleges. International Journal for Academic Development, 20(2), 178-192.

Abstract: In this article, we consider the role of departmental contexts and relationships in faculty work within liberal arts colleges. Knowledge about how departmental networks relate to success and satisfaction may inform the work of those who support faculty work in liberal arts colleges, as well as other institution types. Analysis of quantitative and qualitative survey data from faculty members at 13 liberal arts colleges in the US suggests that informal departmental relationships influence faculty experiences. Findings suggest that departmental leaders and colleagues are sources of professional development and support, but that counter-productive behaviours interfere with such support and foster negative workplace cultures.

Kevin Metz

July 1st, 2015

Metz, K. M., Sanders, S. E., Pender, J. P., Dix, M. R., Hinds, D. T., Quinn, S. J., et al. (2015). Green Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles via Natural Extracts: The Biogenic Nanoparticle Corona and Its Effects on Reactivity. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering.

Abstract: The optical and catalytic properties of metal nanoparticles have attracted significant attention for applications in a wide variety of fields, thus prompting interest in developing sustainable synthetic strategies that leverage the redox properties of natural compounds or extracts. Here, we investigate the surface chemistry of nanoparticles synthesized using coffee as a biogenic reductant. Building on our previously developed synthetic protocols for the preparation of silver and palladium nanoparticle/carbon composite microspheres, a combination of thermogravimetric and spectroscopic methods was used to characterize the carbon microsphere and nanoparticle surfaces. Infrared reflectance spectroscopy and single particle surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize Pd and Ag metal surfaces, respectively, following synthesis. Strongly adsorbed organic layers were found to be present at metal nanoparticle surfaces after synthesis. The catalytic activity of Pd nanoparticles in hydrogenation reactions was leveraged to study the availability of surface sites, and coffee-synthesized nanomaterials were compared to commercial Pd-based hydrogenation catalysts. Our results demonstrate that biogenic adsorbates block catalytic surface sites and affect nanoparticle functionality. These findings highlight the need for careful analysis of surface chemistry as it relates to the specific applications of nanomaterials produced using greener or more sustainable methods.

Albion College student co-authors: Michael Dix, ’14, Joshua Pender, ’15 and Stephanie Sanders, ’15

Carrie Booth Walling

June 30th, 2015

Walling, C. B. (2015). Human Rights Norms, State Sovereignty, and Humanitarian Intervention. Human Rights Quarterly, 37(2), 383-413.

Abstract: Though increasingly legitimate, humanitarian intervention by the United Nations Security Council is selective and rare. This article illustrates how the increasing legitimacy of human rights norms is changing the meaning of state sovereignty and the purpose of military force at the United Nations. By examining Security Council discourse during debates about Iraq, Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Darfur, and Libya, the article delineates the conditions under which discourse creates new opportunities for the Security Council to authorize, engage in, and support humanitarian intervention.