Philip Voss

October 20th, 2017

Voss, P., Drake, T. E., Starosta, K., Andreoiu, C., Ashley, R., Ball, G. C., et al. (2017). Doppler-shift attenuation lifetime measurement of the  36Ar 21+ level. Physical Review C, 96(2), 024305.

Abstract:

At TRIUMF, the TIGRESS Integrated Plunger device and its suite of ancillary detector systems have been implemented for charged-particle tagging and light-ion identification in coincidence with γ-ray spectroscopy for Doppler-shift lifetime studies and low-energy Coulomb excitation measurements. As a test of the device, the lifetime of the first 2+ excited state in 36Ar was measured from the γ-ray line shape of the 2+1 →0+g.s. transition using the Doppler-shift attenuation technique following Coulomb excitation. The line-shape signatures, vital for precision lifetime measurements, were significantly improved by enhanced reaction-channel selectivity using a complementary approach of kinematic gating and digital rise-time discrimination of recoiling charged particles in a silicon PIN diode array. The lifetime was determined by comparisons between the data and simulated line shapes generated using our TIGRESS Coulomb excitation code as an input to the Lindhard method, which was then extended and included as a class in geant4. The model-independent lifetime result of 490±50 fs corresponds to a reduced quadrupole transition strength of B(E2;2+1 →0+g.s.)=56±6 e2 fm4 and agrees well with previous intermediate energy Coulomb excitation measurements, thereby resolving reported discrepancies in the 2+1 level lifetime in this self-conjugate nucleus.

Carrie Booth Walling

October 12th, 2017

Deloffre, M. Z., & Walling, C. B. (2017). Contentious Politics in the United States: What Role for Political Scientists? . PS: Political Science and Politics, 50(4), 985-989.

 

Ola Olapade

October 2nd, 2017

Olapade, O. A. (2017). Community Composition and Diversity of Coastal Bacterioplankton Assemblages in Lakes Michigan, Erie, and Huron. Microbial Ecology.

Abstract: The Laurentian Great Lakes, including Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, located in the eastern part of North America are considered the largest of freshwater lakes in the world; however, very little is known about the diversity and distribution of indigenous microbial assemblages within these vast bodies of freshwater systems. Therefore, to delineate the microbial structure and community composition in these aquatic environments, combinations of high-throughput sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approaches were utilized to quantitatively characterize the occurrence, diversity, and distribution of bacterioplankton assemblages in six different sites located along the coastal regions of Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie. Phylogenetic examination showed a diverse bacterial community belonging to 11 different taxonomic groups. Pyrosequencing results revealed that the majority of the sequences were clustered into four main groups, i.e., Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria, while fluorescent in situ hybridization also showed the numerical dominance of members of the Gammaproteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium in the six lake sites examined. Overall, the assemblages were shown to be quite diverse in distribution among the lake sites examined, comprising mostly of various heterotrophic populations, with the exception of the Lake Erie-Sandusky Bay site with more than 50% domination by autotrophic Cyanobacteria. This indicates that combinations of factors including water chemistry and various anthropogenic disturbances as well as the lake morphometric characteristics are probably influencing the community structure and diversity of the bacterial assemblages within the systems.

Nicolle Zellner

September 22nd, 2017

Huang, Y. H., Minton, D. A., Hirabayashi, M., Elliott, J. R., Richardson, J. E., Fassett, C. I., Zellner, N.E.B. (2017). Heterogeneous impact transport on the Moon. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 122(6), 1158-1180.

Abstract: Impact cratering is the dominant process for transporting material on the Moon’s surface. An impact transports both proximal material (continuous ejecta) locally and distal ejecta (crater rays) to much larger distances. Quantifying the relative importance of locally derived material versus distal material requires understandings of lunar regolith evolution and the mixing of materials across the lunar surface. The Moon has distinctive albedo units of darker mare basalt and brighter highland materials, and the contacts between these units are ideal settings to examine this question. Information on the amount of material transported across these contacts comes from both the sample collection and remote sensing data, though earlier interpretations of these observations are contradictory. The relatively narrow (similar to 4-5 km wide) mixing zone at mare/highland contacts had been interpreted as consistent with most material having been locally derived from underneath mare plains. However, even far from these contacts where the mare is thick, highland material is abundant in some soil samples (>20%), requiring transport of highland material over great distances. Any model of impact transport on the Moon needs to be consistent with both the observed width of mare/highland contacts and the commonality of nonmare material in mare soil samples far from any contact. In this study, using a three-dimensional regolith transport model, we match these constraints and demonstrate that both local and distal material transports are important at the lunar surface. Furthermore, the nature of the distal material transport mechanism in discrete crater rays can result in substantial heterogeneity of surface materials.

Allison Harnish

September 22nd, 2017

Graddy-Lovelace, G., Harnish, A., & Hazlewood, J. A. (2016). World Is Burning, Sky Is Falling, All Hands on Deck! Reflections on Engaged and Action-Oriented Socio-Environmental Scholarship. In N. Haenn, R. Wilk & A. Harnish (Eds.), The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology, Culture, and Sustainable Living (Second edition ed., pp. 445-481). New York: New York University Press.

Ken Saville

September 7th, 2017

Leung, W., Shaffer, C. D., Chen, E. J., Quisenberry, T. J., Ko, K., Braverman, J. M., et al. (2017). Retrotransposons Are the Major Contributors to the Expansion of the Drosophila ananassae Muller F Element. G3-Genes Genomes Genetics, 7(8), 2439-2460.

Abstract: The discordance between genome size and the complexity of eukaryotes can partly be attributed to differences in repeat density. The Muller F element (similar to 5.2 Mb) is the smallest chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, but it is substantially larger (>18.7 Mb) in D. ananassae. To identify the major contributors to the expansion of the F element and to assess their impact, we improved the genome sequence and annotated the genes in a 1.4-Mb region of the D. ananassae F element, and a 1.7-Mb region from the D element for comparison. We find that transposons (particularly LTR and LINE retrotransposons) are major contributors to this expansion (78.6%), while Wolbachia sequences integrated into the D. ananassae genome are minor contributors (0.02%). Both D. melanogaster and D. ananassae F-element genes exhibit distinct characteristics compared to D-element genes (e.g., larger coding spans, larger introns, more coding exons, and lower codon bias), but these differences are exaggerated in D. ananassae. Compared to D. melanogaster, the codon bias observed in D. ananassae F-element genes can primarily be attributed to mutational biases instead of selection. The 59 ends of F-element genes in both species are enriched in dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me2), while the coding spans are enriched in H3K9me2. Despite differences in repeat density and gene characteristics, D. ananassae F-element genes show a similar range of expression levels compared to genes in euchromatic domains. This study improves our understanding of how transposons can affect genome size and how genes can function within highly repetitive domains.

Vicki Baker

September 7th, 2017

Baker, V. L., Terosky, A. L., & Martinez, E. (2017). Faculty Members’ Scholarly Learning Across Institutional Types (ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 43, Number 2): Jossey-Bass.

Philip Voss

August 1st, 2017

Pore, J. L., Cross, D. S., Andreoiu, C., Ashley, R., Ball, G. C., Bender, P. C., et al. (2017). Study of the β decay of 116m1In: A new interpretation of low-lying 0+ states in 116Sn. The European Physical Journal A, 53(2), 27.

Abstract: The 116Sn nucleus contains a collective rotational band originating from proton π 2p-2h excitations across the proton Z = 50 shell gap. Even though this nucleus has been extensively investigated in the past, there was still missing information on the low-energy interband transitions connecting the intruder and normal structures. The low-lying structure of 116Sn was investigated through a high-statistics study of the β decay of 116m1In with the 8π spectrometer and its ancillary detectors at TRIUMF. These measurements
are critical in order to properly characterize the π 2p-2h rotational band. Weak γ-decay branches are observed utilizing γ-γ coincidence spectroscopy methods, leading to the first direct observation of the
85 keV 2+2 → 0+3 γ ray with a transition strength of B(E2) = 99.7(84) W.u. The analysis of these results strongly suggests that the 2027 keV 0+3 state should replace the previously assigned 1757 keV 0+2 state as the band-head of the π 2p-2h rotational band.

Nicolle Zellner

August 1st, 2017

Zellner, N. E. B. (2016). Lunar Regolith: Materials. In B. Cudnik (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Lunar Science (pp. 1-7). Springer International Publishing.

Brad Chase

August 1st, 2017

Abhayan, G. S., Joglekar, P. P., Rajesh, S. V., Aswathy, G. S., Chase, B., Ajithprasad, P., et al. (2016). Fish Otoliths from Navinal, Kachchh, Gujarat: Identification of Taxa and Its Implications. Heritage: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology, 4, 218-227.

Abstract: Among archaeological fauna, considerable amounts of fish remains have been reported from several archaeological sites in Gujarat especially from the Harappan context. Fish remains have not received due attention in faunal studies conducted in South Asia in general owing to several factors. This paper is a preliminary study on fish otoliths from the surface collection at the Harappan site of Navinal, Kachchh, Gujarat. A total of 2257 numbers of otoliths were collected and studied from the site. Identification of taxa was done using comparative modern reference collection of fishes. Six species of fish were identified from the otolith assemblage from Navinal which belong to two families namely Ariidae and Sciaenidae. Fishery practices of the Harappans are assumed on the basis of the identified fish species.

Ashley Miller

August 1st, 2017

Miller, A. (2016). Speech paralysis : ingestion, suffocation, and the torture of listening. In L. M. Voskuil (Ed.), Nineteenth-century energies : literature, technology, culture. Abingdon, UK ; New York: Routledge.

David Reimann

August 1st, 2017

Reimann, D. A. (2016). Snub Polyhedral Forms Constructed from Flexible 60-120 Degree Rhombic Tiles. Proceedings of Bridges 2016: Mathematics, Music, Art, Architecture, Education, Culture, 443-444.

Abstract: We construct snub polyhedral forms using rhombi made from paper-backed wood veneer which are connected pairwise at corners using split-pin fasteners. Combining pairs of adjacent triangular faces into roughly 60°-120° rhombi result in polyhedron with even degree vertices. The flexibility of the materials allows the final closing of the object into a roughly spherical shape, despite eliminating the dihredral angle between the adjacent paired triangles. The open lattice construction yields elegant chiral symmetric forms with visual movement.

Holger Elischberger and Eric Hill

July 18th, 2017

Foster, S. D., Elischberger, H. B., & Hill, E. D. (2017). Examining the Link Between Socioeconomic Status and Mental Illness Prejudice: The Roles of Knowledge About Mental Illness and Empathy. Stigma and Health.

Abstract: Unlike people suffering from most physical afflictions, those with mental illness often face prejudice. This study examines the interplay of several key social and personal predictors of mental illness prejudice: SES, empathy, mental illness knowledge, and personal acquaintance with the mentally ill. As expected, analyses showed that higher subjective (although not objective) SES, lower levels of empathy, and lower levels of knowledge about mental illness all predicted increased prejudice against people suffering from clinical depression and nondescript mental illness—although not against people suffering from schizophrenia. Path analyses showed evidence for a mediating role of knowledge and empathy in the link between SES and prejudice. Implications of these findings for ways to diffuse mental illness prejudice are discussed.

Allison Harnish

July 17th, 2017

Haenn, N., Wilk, R. R., & Harnish, A. (Eds.). (2016). The Environment in Anthropology (Second Edition): A Reader in Ecology, Culture, and Sustainable Living. New York: NYU Press.

Drew Christopher

June 29th, 2017

Christopher, A. N. (2017). Interpreting and using statistics in psychological research. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

Jess Roberts

June 26th, 2017

Roberts, J. (2016). “hear the bird”: Sarah Piatt and the Dramatic Monologue. In A. Socarides & J. Putzi (Eds.), A History of Nineteenth-Century American Women’s Poetry (pp. 345-358). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Abstract: For much of the latter half of the nineteenth century, American poet Sarah Piatt wrote and published poems that gave voice to women and children, that grieved the loss of loved ones and moral certainty, and that revealed an unnerving inclination for self-conscious complexity. Some of the most culturally influential periodicals of her time – Atlantic Monthly, Harper’s Weekly, Scribner’s – circulated hundreds of her poems, as well as reviews of the many collections of these poems in book form. These reviews were, by turns, delighted and discomfited by what they called Piatt’s “distinctiveness,” heralding her as one of America’s geniuses even as they cautioned her against apparently unbecoming subtlety and obscurity.

Among the things that distinguished Piatt was her obvious interest in the contextual dynamism of spoken language and the poetic genre that seemed particularly well suited to capitalize on and examine it: the dramatic monologue. Over the course of her career, Piatt wrote more dramatic monologues than any other nineteenth-century American poet. Though many Piatt scholars have addressed dramatic monologues in the context of essays about Piatt’s irony or ambivalence, and in terms of her place among Confederate poets or in postbellum magazine culture, no one has yet read her dramatic monologues primarily through the lens of genre. That is what I do here. In the pages that follow, I describe the generic conventions of the dramatic monologue that are integral to Piatt’s experiments with it, building an interpretive framework out of the doubleness inherent to the genre. I ground that analysis in Piatt’s fifth collection, Dramatic Persons and Moods (1879), because it provides the poems I address with a shared print context, the very title of which directs the reader’s eye to genre. What emerges is a clear picture of how Piatt manipulated the particular conventions of the dramatic monologue in order to anatomize the way women maintained and disrupted the very conventions that restricted their range of experience and expression in their roles as mothers and daughters, readers and writers.

Nicolle Zellner

June 23rd, 2017

Zellner, N. E. B. (2017). Cataclysm No More: New Views on the Timing and Delivery of Lunar Impactors. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, 1-20.

Abstract: If properly interpreted, the impact record of the Moon, Earth’s nearest neighbour, can be used to gain insights into how the Earth has been influenced by impacting events since its formation ~4.5 billion years (Ga) ago. However, the nature and timing of the lunar impactors – and indeed the lunar impact record itself – are not well understood. Of particular interest are the ages of lunar impact basins and what they tell us about the proposed “lunar cataclysm” and/or the late heavy bombardment (LHB), and how this impact episode may have affected early life on Earth or other planets. Investigations of the lunar impactor population over time have been undertaken and include analyses of orbital data and images; lunar, terrestrial, and other planetary sample data; and dynamical modelling. Here, the existing information regarding the nature of the lunar impact record is reviewed and new interpretations are presented. Importantly, it is demonstrated that most evidence supports a prolonged lunar (and thus, terrestrial) bombardment from ~4.2 to 3.4 Ga and not a cataclysmic spike at ~3.9 Ga. Implications for the conditions required for the origin of life are addressed.

Greg Saltzman

June 23rd, 2017

Saltzman, G. M. (2016). Contested Terrain:  Developments in Labor Law Affecting Higher Education Since 2012. In H. S. Wechsler (Ed.), NEA 2016 Almanac of Higher Education (Washington:  National Education Association (pp. 31-38).

Vicki Baker

June 22nd, 2017

Baker, V. (2017). Organizational Contexts & Formal Mentoring Programs: Aligning Individual and Organizational Outcomes. In D. A. Clutterbuck, F. K. Kochan, L. Lunsford, N. Dominguez & J. Haddock-Millar (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Mentoring: SAGE Publishing.

Christopher Rohlman

June 22nd, 2017

Rohlman, C. E., Blanco, M. R., & Walter, N. G. (2016). Putting Humpty-Dumpty Together: Clustering the Functional Dynamics of Single Biomolecular Machines Such as the Spliceosome. In M. Spies & Y. R. Chemla (Eds.), Single-Molecule Enzymology: Fluorescence-Based and High-Throughput Methods (Vol. 581, pp. 257-283).

Abstract: The spliceosome is a biomolecular machine that, in all eukaryotes, accomplishes site-specific splicing of introns from precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs) with high fidelity. Operating at the nanometer scale, where inertia and friction have lost the dominant role they play in the macroscopic realm, the spliceosome is highly dynamic and assembles its active site around each pre-mRNA anew. To understand the structural dynamics underlying the molecular motors, clocks, and ratchets that achieve functional accuracy in the yeast spliceosome (a long-standing model system), we have developed single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) approaches that report changes in intra-and intermolecular interactions in real time. Building on our work using hidden Markov models (HMMs) to extract kinetic and conformational state information from smFRET time trajectories, we recognized that HMM analysis of individual state transitions as independent stochastic events is insufficient for a biomolecular machine as complex as the spliceosome. In this chapter, we elaborate on the recently developed smFRET-based Single-Molecule Cluster Analysis (SiMCAn) that dissects the intricate conformational dynamics of a pre-mRNA through the splicing cycle in a model-free fashion. By leveraging hierarchical clustering techniques developed for Bioinformatics, SiMCAn efficiently analyzes large datasets to first identify common molecular behaviors. Through a second level of clustering based on the abundance of dynamic behaviors exhibited by defined functional intermediates that have been stalled by biochemical or genetic tools, SiMCAn then efficiently assigns pre-mRNA FRET states and transitions to specific splicing complexes, with the potential to find heretofore undescribed conformations. SiMCAn thus arises as a general tool to analyze dynamic cellular machines more broadly.

Andy Boyan

June 8th, 2017

Sherry, J. L., Boyan, A., Knight, K., Edwards, C., & Hao, Q. (2017). Multiplayer games as the ultimate communication lab and incubator: A multi-media study. In R. Kowert & T. Quandt (Eds.), New Perspectives on the Social Aspects of Digital Gaming: Multiplayer 2. New York: Routledge.

Brad Rabquer

May 31st, 2017

Mor-Vaknin, N., Saha, A., Legendre, M., Carmona-Rivera, C., Amin, M. A., Rabquer, B. J., et al. (2017). DEK-targeting DNA aptamers as therapeutics for inflammatory arthritis. Nature Communications, 8, 14252.

Abstract: Novel therapeutics are required for improving the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. Aptamers are single-stranded RNA or DNA molecules that have recently shown utility in a clinical setting, as they can specifically neutralize biomedically relevant proteins, particularly cell surface and extracellular proteins. The nuclear chromatin protein DEK is a secreted chemoattractant that is abundant in the synovia of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Here, we show that DEK is crucial to the development of arthritis in mouse models, thus making it an appropriate target for aptamer-based therapy. Genetic depletion of DEK or treatment with DEK-targeted aptamers significantly reduces joint inflammation in vivo and greatly impairs the ability of neutrophils to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). DEK is detected in spontaneously forming NETs from JIA patient synovial neutrophils, and DEK-targeted aptamers reduce NET formation. DEK is thus key to joint inflammation, and anti-DEK aptamers hold promise for the treatment of JIA and other types of arthritis.

Holger Elischberger, Eric Hill and Lynn Verduzco-Baker

May 25th, 2017

Elischberger, H. B., Glazier, J. J., Hill, E. D., & Verduzco-Baker, L. (2017). Attitudes Toward and Beliefs about Transgender Youth: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Between the United States and India. Sex Roles, 76, 1-19.

Abstract: Using an internet-based survey, we examined attitudes toward transgender youth in the United States and India, two cultures with differences in conceptualizations of gender and treatment of transgender individuals in society, law, and religion. We found generally positive attitudes toward transgender youth in our U.S. (n = 218), but moderately negative ones in our Indian (n = 217), sample. Consistent with the literature on prejudice against transgender adults in many Western societies, general social conservatism in the form of religious beliefs and political ideology, gender-specific conservatism in the form of gender binary belief, and endorsement of environmental rather than biological causes of transgender identity were the best predictors of U.S. participants’ attitudes, although personal contact with gender and sexual minorities also played a role at the bivariate level. These findings suggest that the processes underlying prejudice against transgender youth are similar to those that foster adult-directed transphobia in that cultural context. In contrast, religion-based disapproval and environmental causal attributions were the best predictors of Indian respondents’ attitudes, whereas gender binary belief played only a minor role, and political conservatism and personal contact no role at all. Our regression analyses accounted for considerably more of the variability in U.S. than in Indian participants’ attitudes, highlighting the need for additional (qualitative) work to identify the factors that promote transprejudice in India. We discuss these findings in light of cross-cultural differences between the two countries in terms of our predictors and consider implications for efforts to reduce prejudice against transgender youth.

Albion College Student Co-Author: Jessica Glazier, ’16

David Seely

May 18th, 2017

Seely, D. G., Andrianarijaona, V. M., Wulf, D., Morgan, K., McCammon, D., Fogle, M., et al. (2017). Line ratios for soft-x-ray emission following charge exchange between O8+ and Kr. Physical Review A, 95(5), 052704.

Abstract: Lyman spectra and line ratios are reported for soft-x-ray emissions following the charge exchange process in 293, 414, 586, and 1256 km/s O8+ and Kr collisions. Lyman series from Ly-α to Ly-ɛ were resolved for the O7+ ion using a high-resolution x-ray quantum microcalorimeter detector. It is found that the observed line ratios are dependent on the nl distribution of the captured electron, and the Ly-α and Ly-β x-ray emissions are enhanced. Moreover, by comparing the measured line ratios to the constructed theoretical single charge exchange line ratios for O8+ +H, it is suggested that autoionizing double capture plays a significant role in the enhancement of Ly-α and Ly-β emissions for the present system.

Vicki Baker

May 18th, 2017

Baker, V. L., Greer, J., Lunsford, L. G., Pifer, M. J., & Ihas, D. (2017). Documenting the Aspiration Gap in Institutional Language About Undergraduate Research, Scholarship, and Creative Work. Innovative Higher Education, 42(2), 127-143.

Abstract: We conducted a content-analysis of the websites of 100 institutional members of the Council of Undergraduate Research in order to examine the relationship between messages communicated on websites as compared to messages expressed within institutional procedures and policies. Findings show that public research institutions were more likely than baccalaureate institutions to have an Office of Undergraduate Research. Further incentives and supports provided by such offices are predominantly directed to students. Lastly, our analysis of promotion and tenure policies reveals that only 14 institutions out of the 100 in our sample explicitly mentioned mentoring undergraduate researchers in the evaluation criteria for faculty members. We offer implications for research and practice.

Cliff Harris

May 18th, 2017

Kambhu, A., Gren, M., Tang, W., Comfort, S., & Harris, C. E. (2017). Remediating 1,4-dioxane-contaminated water with slow-release persulfate and zerovalent iron. Chemosphere, 175, 170-177.

Abstract: 1,4-dioxane is an emerging contaminant that was used as a corrosion inhibitor with chlorinated solvents. Metal-activated persulfate can degrade dioxane but reaction kinetics have typically been characterized by a rapid decrease during the first 30 min followed by either a slower decrease or no further change (i.e., plateau). Our objective was to identify the factors responsible for this plateau and then determine if slow-release formulations of sodium persulfate and Fe0 could provide a more sustainable degradation treatment. We accomplished this by conducting batch experiments where Fe0-activated persulfate was used to treat dioxane. Treatment variables included the timing at which the dioxane was added to the Fe0-persulfate reaction (T = 0 and 30 min) and including various products of the Fe0-persulfate reaction at T = 0 min (Fe2+, Fe3+, and SO42−). Results showed that when dioxane was spiked into the reaction at 30 min, no degradation occurred; this is in stark contrast to the 60% decrease observed when added at T = 0 min. Adding Fe2+ at the onset (T = 0 min) also severely halted the reaction and caused a plateau. This indicates that excess ferrous iron produced from the Fe0-persulfate reaction scavenges sulfate radicals and prevents further dioxane degradation. By limiting the release of Fe0 in a slow-release wax formulation, degradation plateaus were avoided and 100% removal of dioxane observed. By using 14C-labeled dioxane, we show that ∼40% of the dioxane carbon is mineralized within 6 d. These data support the use of slow-release persulfate and zerovalent iron to treat dioxane-contaminated water.

Roger Albertson

May 11th, 2017

Strunov, A., Schneider, D. I., Albertson, R., & Miller, W. J. (2017). Restricted distribution and lateralization of mutualistic Wolbachia in the Drosophila brain. Cellular Microbiology, 19(1).

Abstract: Microbial symbionts are universal entities of all living organisms that can significantly affect host fitness traits in manifold ways but, even more fascinating, also their behaviour. Although better known from parasitic symbionts, we currently lack any cases where ‘neurotrophic’ symbionts have co-evolved mutualistic behavioural interactions from which both partners profit. By theory, most mutualistic associations have originated from ancestral parasitic ones during their long-term co-evolution towards a cost-benefit equilibrium. To manipulate host behaviour in a way where both partners benefit in a reciprocal manner, the symbiont has to target and remain restricted to defined host brain regions to minimize unnecessary fitness costs. By using the classic Drosophila paulistorum model system we demonstrate that (i) mutualistic Wolbachia are restricted to various Drosophila brain areas, (ii) form bacteriocyte-like structures within the brain, (iii) exhibit strictly lateral tropism, and (iv) finally propose that their selective neuronal infection affects host sexual behaviour adaptively.

Lynn Verduzco-Baker

May 10th, 2017

Verduzco-Baker, L. (2017). “I Don’t Want Them to Be a Statistic”: Mothering Practices of Low-Income Mothers. Journal of Family Issues, 38(7), 1010-1038.

Abstract: U.S. discourse on low-income mothers frames them as social problems and this presumption of deficiency is reflected in studies of parenting logics and practices. Scholars often underestimate the sophistication of low-income mothers’ parenting logic and do not recognize that these mothers work as hard as and use (appropriately) different parenting logics than those of middle-class mothers. I investigate parenting logics of African American and White low-income mothers. These women demonstrate a logic that follows many of the same premises of middle-class parenting strategies but additionally seeks to address obstacles that prevent low-income youth from reaching goals: addiction, drug dealing, pregnancy, and the street. This logic leads to strategies that may appear to be inexpensive adaptations of middle-class practices, however, analysis of mothers’ narratives reveals they are not derivative but are intended to prepare children to avoid perils of their social context. This study illuminates a previously misunderstood version of intensive mothering.

Carrie Menold

May 4th, 2017

Sievers, N. E., Menold, C. A., Grove, M., & Coble, M. A. (2017). White mica trace element and boron isotope evidence for distinctive infiltration events during exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust. International Geology Review, 59(5-6), 621-638.

Abstract: Previous study of subducted continental crust within the Luliang Shan terrane in Northwest China has documented metasomatic formation of thick, hydrated phengite + garnet-rich selvages at the interface between mafic eclogite blocks and quartzofeldspathic host gneiss. Whole rock concentrations of Cs and Ba within the selvage are enriched by two orders of magnitude relative to the eclogite blocks and host gneiss. We performed in situ ion microprobe analyses of Li, Be, B, Rb, Sr, Cs and Ba and δ11B of phengite within the Luliang Shane terrane to better constrain the source(s) of the infiltrating fluid. The phengite within the selvage are enriched in Li, Cs and Ba and yield δ11B values between ?30? and ?9?, values that are lower than mantle values. High Ba/Rb, Cs/Rb coupled with low B/Be, B/Li and highly negative δ11B values indicate that the high-pressure fluid that formed the selvage was derived from highly devolatilized rocks within the subduction channel. In contrast, muscovite, which crystallized in the adjacent host gneiss during a subsequent lower pressure phase of fluid infiltration at approximately 0.9 GPa depths, has much lower Li, Cs and Ba relative to the high-pressure phengite. These retrograde muscovite have very high concentrations of B (up to 5500 ppm) and Be (up to 50 ppm) and high (?2 to +8?) δ11B values that are consistent with crystallization from a fluid derived from shallower and less devolatilized regions of the subduction zone. Additional host gneiss samples, regionally distributed and kilometres away from the studied area lack the B-rich signature and indicate that the late stage fluids were likely localized to the region near the studied traverse.

Andy Boyan

May 4th, 2017

Bowman, N. D., Hallett, J., Boyan, A., & Groskopf, J. (2017). Squid or Chalkie? The Role of Self-identify and Selective Perception in Processing Tendentious “Hillbilly” Humor. Ohio Communication Journal, 55, 16-28.