Heather Betz

July 27th, 2015 by MVH

Alaimo, K., Carlson, J. J., Pfeiffer, K. A., Eisenmann, J. C., Paek, H.-J., Betz, H. H., et al. (2015). Project FIT: A School, Community and Social Marketing Intervention Improves Healthy Eating Among Low-Income Elementary School Children. Journal of Community Health, 40, 815-826.

Abstract: Project FIT was a two-year multi-component nutrition and physical activity intervention delivered in ethnically-diverse low-income elementary schools in Grand Rapids, MI. This paper reports effects on children’s nutrition outcomes and process evaluation of the school component. A quasi-experimental design was utilized. 3rd, 4th and 5th-grade students (Yr 1 baseline: N = 410; Yr 2 baseline: N = 405; age range: 7.5–12.6 years) were measured in the fall and spring over the two-year intervention. Ordinal logistic, mixed effect models and generalized estimating equations were fitted, and the robust standard errors were utilized. Primary outcomes favoring the intervention students were found regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grain bread during year 2. Process evaluation revealed that implementation of most intervention components increased during year 2. Project FIT resulted in small but beneficial effects on consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain bread in ethnically diverse low-income elementary school children.

Vicki Baker

July 24th, 2015 by MVH

Baker, V. L., & Baldwin, R. G. (2015). A Case Study of Liberal Arts Colleges in the 21st Century: Understanding Organizational Change and Evolution in Higher Education. Innovative Higher Education, 40(3), 247-261.

Abstract: We draw upon the evolutionary model of change in order to examine the organizational transformation of three liberal arts colleges (Albion College, Allegheny College, Kenyon College). Relying on our prior research (Baker, Baldwin, & Makker, 2012), we seek to continue our exploration and understanding of the evolution occurring in the important liberal arts college sector of higher education. We seek to understand why and how these colleges change, what changes occur, and, especially, what makes liberal arts colleges susceptible to change. The findings of this study have the potential to illuminate change in other types of higher education institutions.

Greg Saltzman

July 24th, 2015 by MVH

Saltzman, G. M. (2014). The Economics of MOOCs. In H. S. Wechsler (Ed.), The NEA 2014 Almanac of Higher Education (pp. 19-29). Washington: National Education Association.

 

Carrie Booth Walling

July 23rd, 2015 by MVH

Walling, C. B. (2015). The UN Security Council and the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights. In J. R. Pruce (Ed.), The Social Practice of Human Rights. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Publisher’s description: The Social Practice of Human Rights bridges the conventional scholar-practitioner divide by focusing on the space in between. In capturing this cutting edge research program, the volume proposes a perspective that motivates critical self-reflection of the strategies that drive communities dedicated to the advocacy and implementation of human rights. The social practice of human rights takes place not in front of a judge, but in the streets and alleys, in the backrooms and out-of-the-way places where change occurs. Contributors to this volume investigate the contexts and efforts of activists and professionals devoted to promoting human rights norms. This research takes as its subject the organizations and movements that shoulder the burden of improving respect for human dignity—and through a constructive critique of these patterns and practices, scholarship can have a positive impact on the political world.

Nels Christensen

July 16th, 2015 by MVH

Christensen, N. A. (2014). Learning Where the Weather Is Real: Why Teaching in Bad Weather Is Good. Resilience: A Journal of the Environmental Humanities, 1(3), 100-106.

Teach outdoors. Make your teaching outdoors make sense. And teach outdoors when the weather is bad.

For most educators, that first imperative—teach outdoors—probably isn’t such a hard idea to swallow. After all, it’s a rare teacher who hasn’t at one point or another succumbed to the pull of sunny skies, warm weather, and a classroom full of students pleading to “go outside.” Faced with this particular mixture of circumstances, it seems only right and natural to leave the indoor classroom behind, walk out to the quad, and circle up on a neatly trimmed lawn.

But there’s something about that second imperative—make your teaching outdoors make sense—that asks us to move beyond the basic impulse to escape the stuffy indoors in favor of fresh air, something that encourages us to think critically about the shaping influence of place in education. In the past decade, this interest in the relationship among where, what, and how we teach has motivated important work from child advocates, such as Richard Louv’s Last Child in the Woods (2006) and Christopher Cook’s Where Do the Children Play? (2007), a pbs documentary inspired by Elizabeth Goodenough’s Secret Spaces of Childhood (2003). The connections between self and place also form the common bond among those of us engaged in what is variously called environmental, outdoor, experiential, or place-based education.   (Excerpt from publisher)

 

David Reimann

July 15th, 2015 by MVH

Reimann, D. A. (2014). Art and Symmetry of Scottish Carved Stone Balls. Proceedings of Bridges 2014: Mathematics, Music, Art, Architecture, Culture (2014), 441-444.

Abstract: Over 425 Neolithic stone balls with carved knobs have been found in northern Scotland. There is no recorded use of these objects, which has resulted in much speculation about their purpose. In some cases, the symmetry of the knob placements is consistent with symmetry associated with Platonic solids. However, these objects are clearly not polyhedra and thus do not represent examples of Platonic solids, despite recent claims to that effect. Examples are shown along with pictures of modern art that they have inspired. Their symmetric form contributes to their aesthetic appeal, thus they can be considered very early examples of mathematical art.

Heather Betz

July 13th, 2015 by MVH

Betz, H. H., Myers, J., Jaffe, A., & Smith, K. (2015). Reproducibility of the Veterans Physical Activity Questionnaire in an Elderly Population. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 12(3), 376-381.

Abstract: Background:Quantifying lifetime physical activity using self-reported measures is challenging due to reliance on recall, especially in older populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the 1-year reproducibility of the Veterans Physical Activity Questionnaire (VAPAQ) in a cohort of patients with documented abdominal aortic aneurysm disease (AAA). Methods: Subjects included men (n = 52) and women (n = 3) enrolled in AAA STOP, a randomized trial designed to test the ability of supervised exercise training to modify AAA biology and early disease progression. Results: The overall correlation coefficient for lifetime recreational energy expenditure between the 2 examinations was 0.93 (P < .001), with an overall difference of 26 kcal/week, a typical error (standard deviation of the differences) of 171 kcals/week, and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 15.5%. Conclusions: The VAPAQ is a reproducible tool to quantify lifetime energy expenditure in older adults with documented vascular disease.

Claire Mitchell and Nonye Alozie

July 13th, 2015 by MVH

Mitchell, C. E., Alozie, N. M., & Wathington, H. D. (2015). Investigating the Potential of Community College Developmental Summer Bridge Programs in Facilitating Student Adjustment to Four-Year Institutions. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 39(4), 366-382.

Abstract: This study examines whether community college developmental summer bridge programs (DSBPs) can help students acquire the academic and college knowledge needed to attend and succeed at a four-year higher education institution. In-depth interviews with 14 participants at nine four-year institutions in Texas were conducted two years after their random assignment into one of four four-week long community college DSBPs. The interviews reinforced the value of such programs in affording key validating and socializing experiences as well as illuminate program limitations in managing student expectations and providing institution-specific college knowledge for students who will matriculate at a four-year institution subsequent to program participation.

Vicki Baker

July 8th, 2015 by MVH

Pifer, M. J., Baker, V. L., & Lunsford, L. G. (2015). Academic departments as networks of informal learning: faculty development at liberal arts colleges. International Journal for Academic Development, 20(2), 178-192.

Abstract: In this article, we consider the role of departmental contexts and relationships in faculty work within liberal arts colleges. Knowledge about how departmental networks relate to success and satisfaction may inform the work of those who support faculty work in liberal arts colleges, as well as other institution types. Analysis of quantitative and qualitative survey data from faculty members at 13 liberal arts colleges in the US suggests that informal departmental relationships influence faculty experiences. Findings suggest that departmental leaders and colleagues are sources of professional development and support, but that counter-productive behaviours interfere with such support and foster negative workplace cultures.

Kevin Metz

July 1st, 2015 by MVH

Metz, K. M., Sanders, S. E., Pender, J. P., Dix, M. R., Hinds, D. T., Quinn, S. J., et al. (2015). Green Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles via Natural Extracts: The Biogenic Nanoparticle Corona and Its Effects on Reactivity. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering.

Abstract: The optical and catalytic properties of metal nanoparticles have attracted significant attention for applications in a wide variety of fields, thus prompting interest in developing sustainable synthetic strategies that leverage the redox properties of natural compounds or extracts. Here, we investigate the surface chemistry of nanoparticles synthesized using coffee as a biogenic reductant. Building on our previously developed synthetic protocols for the preparation of silver and palladium nanoparticle/carbon composite microspheres, a combination of thermogravimetric and spectroscopic methods was used to characterize the carbon microsphere and nanoparticle surfaces. Infrared reflectance spectroscopy and single particle surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize Pd and Ag metal surfaces, respectively, following synthesis. Strongly adsorbed organic layers were found to be present at metal nanoparticle surfaces after synthesis. The catalytic activity of Pd nanoparticles in hydrogenation reactions was leveraged to study the availability of surface sites, and coffee-synthesized nanomaterials were compared to commercial Pd-based hydrogenation catalysts. Our results demonstrate that biogenic adsorbates block catalytic surface sites and affect nanoparticle functionality. These findings highlight the need for careful analysis of surface chemistry as it relates to the specific applications of nanomaterials produced using greener or more sustainable methods.

Albion College student co-authors: Michael Dix, ’14, Joshua Pender, ’15 and Stephanie Sanders, ’15

Carrie Booth Walling

June 30th, 2015 by MVH

Walling, C. B. (2015). Human Rights Norms, State Sovereignty, and Humanitarian Intervention. Human Rights Quarterly, 37(2), 383-413.

Abstract: Though increasingly legitimate, humanitarian intervention by the United Nations Security Council is selective and rare. This article illustrates how the increasing legitimacy of human rights norms is changing the meaning of state sovereignty and the purpose of military force at the United Nations. By examining Security Council discourse during debates about Iraq, Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Darfur, and Libya, the article delineates the conditions under which discourse creates new opportunities for the Security Council to authorize, engage in, and support humanitarian intervention.

Nicolle Zellner

June 25th, 2015 by MVH

Zellner, N. E. B., & Delano, J. W. (2015). Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of lunar impact glasses: Relationships among Ar diffusivity, chemical composition, shape, and size. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 161, 203-218.

Abstract: Lunar impact glasses, which are quenched melts produced during cratering events on the Moon, have the potential to provide not only compositional information about both the local and regional geology of the Moon but also information about the impact flux over time. We present in this paper the results of 73 new Ar-40/Ar-39 analyses of well-characterized, inclusion-free lunar impact glasses and demonstrate that size, shape, chemical composition, fraction of radiogenic Ar-40 retained, and cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages are important for Ar-40/Ar-39 investigations of these samples. Specifically, analyses of lunar impact glasses from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites indicate that retention of radiogenic Ar-40 is a strong function of post-formation thermal history in the lunar regolith, size, and chemical composition. This is because the Ar diffusion coefficient (at a constant temperature) is estimated to decrease by similar to 3-4 orders of magnitude with an increasing fraction of non-bridging oxygens, X(NBO), over the compositional range of most lunar impact glasses with compositions from feldspathic to basaltic. Based on these relationships, lunar impact glasses with compositions and sizes sufficient to have retained similar to 90% of their radiogenic Ar during 750 Ma of cosmic ray exposure at time-integrated temperatures of up to 290 K have been identified and are likely to have yielded reliable Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of formation. Additionally, similar to 50% of the identified impact glass spheres have formation ages of 6500 Ma, while similar to 75% of the identified lunar impact glass shards and spheres have ages of formation 62000 Ma. Higher thermal stresses in lunar impact glasses quenched from hyperliquidus temperatures are considered the likely cause of poor survival of impact glass spheres, as well as the decreasing frequency of lunar impact glasses in general with increasing age. The observed age-frequency distribution of lunar impact glasses may reflect two processes: (i) diminished preservation due to spontaneous shattering with age; and (ii) preservation of a remnant population of impact glasses from the tail end of the terminal lunar bombardment having Ar-40/Ar-39 ages up to 3800 Ma. A protocol is described for selecting and analyzing lunar impact glasses.

David Seely

June 24th, 2015 by MVH

Andrianarijaona, V. M., Wulf, D., McCammon, D., Seely, D. G., & Havener, C. C. (2015). Radiance line ratios Ly-β/Ly-α, Ly-γ/Ly-α, Ly-δ/Ly-α, and Ly-ε/Ly-α for soft X-ray emissions following charge exchange between C6+ and Kr. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 350, 122-126.

Abstract: The radiance line ratios Ly-β/Ly-α, Ly-γ/Ly-α, Ly-δ/Ly-α, and Ly-ε/Ly-α for soft X-ray emission following charge exchange (CX) between C6+ and Kr are reported for collision energies between approximately 320 and 46,000 eV/u. The corresponding collision velocities (250–3000 km/s) are characteristic of the solar wind. X-ray spectra were obtained at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Multicharged Ion Research Facility using a microcalorimeter X-ray detector with a resolution on the order of 10 eV FWHM. The measured Ly-ε/Ly-α is zero for all considered energies and suggests that very little, if any, capture to 6p occurs. The measured Ly-β/Ly-α and Ly-γ/Ly-α ratios intersect and form a well resolved node around (950 ± 50) km/s, which could be used as an astrophysical velocity indicative tool. The results reported here are compared to calculations for C6+ + H since no published theory for C6+ + Kr is known to exist. Double-electron-capture (DEC) and other multi-electron processes are possible. True double capture is estimated to be only 10% of the single-electron-capture (SEC).

Heather Betz

June 22nd, 2015 by MVH

Betz, H. H., Myers, J., Jaffe, A., Smith, K., & Dalman, R. (2014). Influence of pedometers on habitual physical activity patterns in patients with vascular disease. Healthy Aging Research, 3(16).

Abstract:

Background: Pedometers are used to measure physical activity and motivate individuals to be more active. Little is known regarding the impact of the conditions when issuing a pedometer. We explored the influence of pedometers on daily physical activity in patients with cardiovascular disease, with and without additional information, direction, or encouragement.
Methods: Subjects included males (n=45) and females (n=5) (mean age 70.9 ± 7.4 years) with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease from the AAA STOP trial. The No Contact (NC) group (n=25) was mailed a packet containing a pedometer, 12 monthly log sheets, and 12 postage-paid return envelopes, but no letter or instructions. Interviews were conducted after 12 months. The Exercise Treatment (ET) group (n=25) received their pedometers at their first study visit; the pedometers were set up for each individual and goals were discussed. Additionally, they received weekly follow-up and reminders to use their pedometers and increase their daily physical activity.
Results: Twelve of the 25 (48%) NC subjects returned ≥6 monthly logs. Energy expenditure significantly differed between the NC and ET groups at both the 12-month (1331.8 ± 244.1 kcals/week vs. 2357.3 ± 369.6 kcals/week, respectively, p=0.02) and 24-month follow-up (1053.6 ± 227.3 kcals/week vs. 2371.9 ± 434.6 kcals/week respectively, p=0.01). Only 8% (2/25) in the NC group changed their exercise routine due to the pedometer, while 16% (4/25) increased their exercise volume due to wearing the pedometer.
Conclusions: Receiving a pedometer did not aid in increasing daily physical activity in adults with vascular disease. Education, goal setting, and encouragement are needed to supplement the use of a pedometer to increase energy expenditure.

Vicki Baker

June 17th, 2015 by MVH

Baker, V. L., & Pifer, M. J. (2014). Preparing for practice: parallel processes of identity development in stage 3 of doctoral education. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 9, 137-154.

Abstract: As part of a longitudinal study, we examined Stage 3 of the doctoral student experience by further testing and refining the notion of a parallel process of identity development as student and scholar in doctoral education. We relied on a framework that integrates developmental networks and sociocultural learning to explore the types of learning and interactions students engage in to persist through Stage 3. Our results indicate that this identity development process is prompted by two program milestones in Stage 3: the dissertation and the search for employment. In comparing the experiences of students who pursued faculty appointments with those who pursued administrative careers, we found similarities and differences. We discuss these results and offer future directions of research and practice.

Brad Chase

June 17th, 2015 by MVH

Chase, B. (2014). On the Pastoral Economies of Harappan Gujarat: Faunal  Analyses at Shikarpur in Context. Heritage: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology, 2, 1-22.

Abstract: The faunal remains from Shikarpur, an important settlement of the Indus Civilization (2600‐1900 BC) in Gujarat, are examined in order to explore patterns of consumption and the organization of livestock production. Overall, there is very little variation in either consumption or production patterns through the Integration Era occupation of the site suggesting that pastoral economies that supplied the residents with livestock were resilient in the face of social and possibly climatic changes that characterized this period. Cattle and buffalo were generally kept for secondary products prior to consumption at advanced age while goats and sheep were kept primarily for meat and consumed at younger ages. Throughout its occupation, the residents of Shikarpur generally consumed more cattle and buffalo than did their neighbors at Bagasra. Within the site, the residents of the walled enclosure consumed a more varied diet than their neighbors outside the walls, a pattern also observed at Bagasra.

Karen Erlandson

June 17th, 2015 by MVH

Erlandson, K. (2014). Sexiled: Privacy Acquisition Strategies of College Roommates. Journal of College and University Student Housing, 40(2), 12-29.

Abstract: This study sought to understand how roommates make privacy bids in college residence halls. The results indicate that privacy for sexual activity is a problem for students living in college residence halls, as almost all participants (82%) reported having dealt with this issue. Two sets of responses were collected and analyzed: privacy acquisition strategies negotiated prior to the need for privacy and privacy acquisition strategies that are spontaneous. Some roommates reported never having the need to discuss or request privacy. Therefore, three categories of responses are discussed: previously arranged strategies, spontaneous strategies, and non-strategies. The findings of this study suggest that many roommates negotiate how they will handle the need for privacy before the need arises, and when done in this manner the requests are usually direct and unaggressive. This study has implications for practitioners, students, and staff in the residence hall.

Drew Christopher, Mareike Wieth

May 15th, 2015 by MVH

Walker, R. J., Christopher, A. N., Wieth, M. B., & Buchanan, J. (2015). Personality, time-of-day preference, and eating behavior: The mediational role of morning-eveningness. Personality and Individual Differences, 77(0), 13-17.

Abstract: Although prior research has established that eating behaviors are related to both the Big Five personality traits and time-of-day preference, no research has directly examined if time-of-day preference mediates personality differences in eating behavior. We directly tested this model by assessing participants’ (N = 279) Big Five personality traits, time-of-day preference, and three-factors of eating (i.e., restrained eating, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating) using validated questionnaires. Mediation analyses revealed that time-of-day preference partially mediated the relationship between the personality factors (conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion) and eating behavior, primarily uncontrolled eating. These results indicate that time-of-day preference, in part, accounts for personality differences in eating behavior. This emphasizes the need to assess time-of-day preference when examining the relationship between personality and health-related behaviors.

Heather Betz

May 7th, 2015 by MVH

Paek, H. J., Jung, Y. M., Oh, H. J., Alaimo, K., Pfeiffer, K., Carlson, J. J., Wen, Y.L., Betz, H.H., Orth, J. (2015). A social marketing approach to promoting healthful eating and physical activity in low-income and ethnically diverse schools. Health Education Journal, 74(3), 351-363.

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the short-term outcome of the social marketing approach used in Project FIT, we developed a school- and community-based programme for promoting healthful eating and physical activity in kindergarten to 5th-grade children and their parents. Design: A 2-year quasi-experiment for children and two cross-sectional surveys for parents. Setting: We included low-income, urban and ethnically diverse elementary schools and neighbourhoods in Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. Method: Students in 3rd, 4th and 5th grades were surveyed in four intervention schools (four time points, N with at least one time point measurement = 664) and two control schools (N = 195). Parents of intervention students were surveyed at baseline (N = 286) and follow-up (N = 215). Key dependent variables included self-reported healthful eating and physical activity. Key independent variables included awareness, knowledge, motivation and attitudes towards Project FIT. Analysis: We analysed generalised linear mixed models and generalised estimation equation (GEE) models for the student surveys and mean difference tests and logistic regressions for the parent surveys. Results: The proportion of students who were aware of Project FIT increased over time. GEE models showed that selected key dependent variables were significantly associated with self-reported healthful eating and physical activity. Parents were more aware of Project FIT at follow-up compared to the baseline survey, and their attitudes were significantly associated with increased healthful eating (vegetables, fruits and whole grains). Conclusion: The social marketing approach utilised in Project FIT contributed to increasing awareness and achieving behavioural goals of healthful eating and physical activity.

Roger Albertson

April 30th, 2015 by MVH

Serbus, L. R., White, P. M., Silva, J. P., Rabe, A., Teixeira, L., Albertson, R., et al. (2015). The Impact of Host Diet on Wolbachia Titer in Drosophila. Plos Pathogens, 11(3).

Abstract: While a number of studies have identified host factors that influence endosymbiont titer, little is known concerning environmental influences on titer. Here we examined nutrient impact on maternally transmitted Wolbachia endosymbionts in Drosophila. We demonstrate that Drosophila reared on sucrose-and yeast-enriched diets exhibit increased and reduced Wolbachia titers in oogenesis, respectively. The yeast-induced Wolbachia depletion is mediated in large part by the somatic TOR and insulin signaling pathways. Disrupting TORC1 with the small molecule rapamycin dramatically increases oocyte Wolbachia titer, whereas hyper-activating somatic TORC1 suppresses oocyte titer. Furthermore, genetic ablation of insulin-producing cells located in the Drosophila brain abolished the yeast impact on oocyte titer. Exposure to yeast-enriched diets altered Wolbachia nucleoid morphology in oogenesis. Furthermore, dietary yeast increased somatic Wolbachia titer overall, though not in the central nervous system. These findings highlight the interactions between Wolbachia and germline cells as strongly nutrient-sensitive, and implicate conserved host signaling pathways by which nutrients influence Wolbachia titer.

Andy Boyan

April 15th, 2015 by MVH

Boyan, A., Grizzard, M., & Bowman, N. D. (2015). A massively moral game? Mass Effect as a case study to understand the influence of players’ moral intuitions on adherence to hero or antihero play styles. Journal of Gaming & Virtual Worlds, 7(1), 41-57.

Abstract: This research examines relationships regarding moral foundations and moral decisions in the Mass Effect video game series. The findings suggest that moral foundation predicts what type of moral decisions a player will make during play. This research reports an online survey (N=138) that asked participants the salience of their moral foundations, along with the moral path, either traditionally heroic (paragon) or traditionally antiheroic (renegade), they chose in their first time playing through the Mass Effect series. The results indicate that moral foundations predict the extent to which game path players choose, but only with regard to the harm/care moral foundation. These findings are discussed in light of game design and the potential for game designers to use morality as a game mechanic beyond the harm foundation and into realms of more nuanced moral situations in game narratives.

Brad Chase

February 12th, 2015 by MVH

Patel, A., Rajesh, S. V., Chase, B., Shaikh, S., Rawat, Y. S., Abhayan, G. S., . . . Renjinimol, M. N. (2014). Indications and Implications of Copper Artifacts from Navinal, A Harappan Site in Kachchh, Gujarat, Western India. Heritage: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology, 2, 545-592.

Abstract: Gujarat has yielded variety of copper artifacts falling into the Indus realm. In the absence of problem oriented studies on copper in Gujarat till date, it is necessary to examine the copper objects from the excavated and explored Harappan sites to enhance our understanding of typology, their technology and use, the trajectory of development of copper metallurgy and its change during the aforesaid period. An endeavor of typological and compositional analyses will enable us in answering many questions about Harappan copper technology. The present paper is a preliminary study of the copper artifacts from the surface collection of the site Navinal, Kachchh, Gujarat. Typological, chemical compositional and micro structural studies were undertaken during this work. The major objects identified are beads, chisel/bar/ingot, hook, knife blade, nail, ring, sheet, spatula, folded strips (tube), wire and prills. Composition analysis revealed Cu‐Sn; Cu‐Zn; and Cu‐Sn‐Zn alloys. The microstructures revealed heat treatments applied while fabrication for increasing its hardness and tensile strength.

Dan Skean

February 11th, 2015 by MVH

Judd, W. S., Skean, J. D., Jr., Bécquer, E. R., & Majure, L. C. (2014). Taxonomic studies in the Miconieae (Melastomataceae). XII. Revision of Miconia sect. Miconiastrum, with emphasis on the Miconia bicolor complex. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 8(2), 457-491.

Abstract: A new section, Miconia sect. Miconiastrum, is recognized (and includes species previously placed in Calycogonium, Charianthus, Miconia, and Tetrazygia). Within this clade, the species of the Miconia bicolor complex are revised. For the nine species of the M. bicolor complex, descriptions, nomenclatural information (including four new names: Miconia karsticola, M. guajaibonensis, M. cajalbanensis, and M. maestrensis), specimen citations, and eco-geographical characterizations are presented, along with an identification key to members of the section. Miconia sect. Miconiastrum represents a monophyletic group within the Caribbean clade of tribe Miconieae (Melastomataceae) and the group is restricted to southern Florida, the Bahamas, Cuba, and Hispaniola. The clade is characterized by hypanthia strongly constricted in fruit, more or less reduced calyx teeth, obovate to spathulate petals, stamens dropping before the petals abscise, and leaves with globularstellate to stellate hairs or peltate scales on the abaxial surface. Most species possess mite domatia formed from a dense tuft of elongate, multicellular, barbate, eglandular hairs in the axils of the midvein and major secondary veins, and they have seeds with smooth to slightly bulging testa cells. Within sect. Miconiastrum a large subclade, i.e., the M. bicolor complex, is diagnosed by 5- or less commonly 6-merous flowers with the petals abaxially papillose-granulose. All members of this clade, except for M. karsticola, also possess paniculate-cymose inflorescences of numerous flowers and abaxial leaf surfaces usually densely covered with well-developed stellate hairs or peltate scales. Within the M. bicolor complex, indumentum characters (as observed on the abaxial leaf surface), form of the calyx tube, size of the calyx lobes, and presence/absence of mite domatia are taxonomically significant.

Bindu Madhok

January 29th, 2015 by MVH

Madhok, B. (2015). A praxis-based global ethical discourse on development and women. Development in Practice, 25(1), 113-123.

Abstract: This article explores a praxis-based moral approach to the study of development and women. Drawing upon an illustrative case-study of Ankur Kala – a non-governmental organisation devoted to the development of destitute women in Kolkata, India – the article shows how studying actual development practices on the ground generates valuable insights without which our ethical understanding of women’s development globally would be incomplete.

Vicki Baker

January 15th, 2015 by MVH

Baker, V. L., & Pifer, M. J. (2015). Antecedents and outcomes: theories of fit and the study of doctoral education. Studies in Higher Education, 40(2), 296-310.

Abstract: This paper explores fit as an important theoretical construct in the study of doctoral education and doctoral student development. We discuss how research based on three types of fit (person-environment fit, person-culture fit, person-vocation fit) may provide critical insights into the doctoral student experience, and offer a framework based on antecedents and outcomes to support future research. We conclude with an application of this framework to two understudied populations of doctoral students and future research directions.

Mareike Wieth

January 8th, 2015 by MVH

Wieth, M. B., & Burns, B. D. (2014). Rewarding Multitasking: Negative Effects of an Incentive on Problem Solving under Divided Attention. Journal of Problem Solving, 7(1).

Abstract: Research has consistently shown negative effects of multitasking on tasks such as problem solving. This study was designed to investigate the impact of an incentive when solving problems in a multitasking situation. Incentives have generally been shown to increase problem solving (e.g., Wieth and Burns, 2006), however, it is unclear whether an incentive can increase problem solving while attentional resources are divided. Participants were either given an incentive or not and asked to complete incremental and insight problems while either in a dual-task or single task condition. After solving the problems participants were given a surprise memory test. Results showed that the incentive only led to increases in problem solving in the single task condition but not the dual-task condition. Furthermore, results showed that an incentive in the dual-task condition led to an increase in recall of irrelevant information. These findings indicate that an incentive cannot ameliorate the detrimental effects of multitasking when problem solving and may even lead to an increase in irrelevant information processing.

Aaron Miller

January 8th, 2015 by MVH

Sridhar, N., Shahrokhshahi, R., Miller, A. J., Calkins, B., Gerrits, T., Lita, A., et al. (2014). Direct measurement of the Wigner function by photon-number-resolving detection. Journal of the Optical Society of America B-Optical Physics, 31(10), B34-B40.

Abstract: Photon-number-resolving (PNR) detection allows for the direct measurement of the Wigner quasi-probability distribution of an optical mode without the need for numerically processing an inverse Radon transform [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4344 (1996)]. In this work, we reproduced the seminal experiment of Banaszek et al. [Phys. Rev. A 60, 674 (1999)] of quantum tomography of a pure coherent state, and of a statistical mixture thereof, and extended it to the more general case of photon fluxes with much more than one photon per detection time. This was made possible by the use of a superconducting transition-edge sensor to perform PNR detection from zero to five photons at 1064 nm, at similar to 70% system efficiency and with no dead time. We detail signal acquisition and detection efficiency and discuss prospects for applying such quantum tomography to non-Gaussian states. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America

Ken Saville

January 5th, 2015 by MVH

Lopatto, D., Hauser, C., Jones, C. J., Paetkau, D., Chandrasekaran, V., Dunbar, D., Saville, K., et al. (2014). A Central Support System Can Facilitate Implementation and Sustainability of a Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics. Cbe-Life Sciences Education, 13(4), 711-723.

Abstract: In their 2012 report, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology advocated “replacing standard science laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses”-a challenging proposition that presents practical and pedagogical difficulties. In this paper, we describe our collective experiences working with the Genomics Education Partnership, a nationwide faculty consortium that aims to provide undergraduates with a research experience in genomics through a scheduled course (a classroom-based undergraduate research experience, or CURE). We examine the common barriers encountered in implementing a CURE, program elements of most value to faculty, ways in which a shared core support system can help, and the incentives for and rewards of establishing a CURE on our diverse campuses. While some of the barriers and rewards are specific to a research project utilizing a genomics approach, other lessons learned should be broadly applicable. We find that a central system that supports a shared investigation can mitigate some shortfalls in campus infrastructure (such as time for new curriculum development, availability of IT services) and provides collegial support for change. Our findings should be useful for designing similar supportive programs to facilitate change in the way we teach science for undergraduates.

Zhen Li

December 18th, 2014 by MVH

Li, Z., & Liao, Q. (2014). Network pricing: can both ISP and P2P benefit? International Journal of Network Management, 24(6), 433-449.

Abstract: Internet service providers are facing increasing back pressure from rising access demand by users, especially peer-to-peer (P2P)-based applications that greatly enhance the large-scale distribution of content into and out of their networks. With the ever increasing consumption pressure on scarce bandwidth resources, ISPs have been forced to reconsider their business model of overselling all-you-can-eat’ broadband at flat rates. Technical solutions such as traffic differentiation or blocking violate the principle of network neutrality; traffic shaping and deep packet analysis fall short in the presence of encryption; and P4P (localized P2P)-based solutions are difficult to achieve in a heterogeneous environment. Economically, various usage-based pricing schemes have been proposed and discussed. While they can improve efficiency in bandwidth consumption, they tend to face strong customer resistance as users have strong preference in favour of simple flat rates. We argue that any feasible pricing reforms cannot deviate much from the current flat rates while providing financial incentives for bandwidth hogs to limit their bandwidth access. In contrast to normal usage-based pricing models that charge by volume, we propose a temporal-based pricing model that may generate a mutually beneficial solution that can not only increase the profitability of ISPs but also accommodate P2P, rather than killing it, without changing the software, protocols or hardware that clients or ISPs use on the network. (Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)

Brad Chase

December 10th, 2014 by MVH

Gadekar, C., Rajesh, S. V., Shaikh, S., Chase, B., Rawat, Y. S., Patel, A., et al. (2014). Typological Analysis of Chalcolithic Lithic Assemblage from Navinal, District Kachchh, Gujarat, Western India. Man and Environment, 39(1), 92-105.

Abstract: Recent explorations at the site of Navinal, Kachchh District, Gujarat has brought to light interesting evidence regarding the co-existence of regional Chalcolithic culture with Urban Harappans. This integration is reflected in various archaeological artefacts collected from the site. Lithic assemblages are an integral part of Chalcolithic cultures and are known to provide important evidence regarding trade and technology. The lithic assemblage recovered from the site has given proof of long distance trade/contact and adaptation of a new technique of the lithic blade production.