Philip Voss

August 1st, 2017

Pore, J. L., Cross, D. S., Andreoiu, C., Ashley, R., Ball, G. C., Bender, P. C., et al. (2017). Study of the β decay of 116m1In: A new interpretation of low-lying 0+ states in 116Sn. The European Physical Journal A, 53(2), 27.

Abstract: The 116Sn nucleus contains a collective rotational band originating from proton π 2p-2h excitations across the proton Z = 50 shell gap. Even though this nucleus has been extensively investigated in the past, there was still missing information on the low-energy interband transitions connecting the intruder and normal structures. The low-lying structure of 116Sn was investigated through a high-statistics study of the β decay of 116m1In with the 8π spectrometer and its ancillary detectors at TRIUMF. These measurements
are critical in order to properly characterize the π 2p-2h rotational band. Weak γ-decay branches are observed utilizing γ-γ coincidence spectroscopy methods, leading to the first direct observation of the
85 keV 2+2 → 0+3 γ ray with a transition strength of B(E2) = 99.7(84) W.u. The analysis of these results strongly suggests that the 2027 keV 0+3 state should replace the previously assigned 1757 keV 0+2 state as the band-head of the π 2p-2h rotational band.

Nicolle Zellner

August 1st, 2017

Zellner, N. E. B. (2016). Lunar Regolith: Materials. In B. Cudnik (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Lunar Science (pp. 1-7). Springer International Publishing.

Brad Chase

August 1st, 2017

Abhayan, G. S., Joglekar, P. P., Rajesh, S. V., Aswathy, G. S., Chase, B., Ajithprasad, P., et al. (2016). Fish Otoliths from Navinal, Kachchh, Gujarat: Identification of Taxa and Its Implications. Heritage: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology, 4, 218-227.

Abstract: Among archaeological fauna, considerable amounts of fish remains have been reported from several archaeological sites in Gujarat especially from the Harappan context. Fish remains have not received due attention in faunal studies conducted in South Asia in general owing to several factors. This paper is a preliminary study on fish otoliths from the surface collection at the Harappan site of Navinal, Kachchh, Gujarat. A total of 2257 numbers of otoliths were collected and studied from the site. Identification of taxa was done using comparative modern reference collection of fishes. Six species of fish were identified from the otolith assemblage from Navinal which belong to two families namely Ariidae and Sciaenidae. Fishery practices of the Harappans are assumed on the basis of the identified fish species.

Ashley Miller

August 1st, 2017

Miller, A. (2016). Speech paralysis : ingestion, suffocation, and the torture of listening. In L. M. Voskuil (Ed.), Nineteenth-century energies : literature, technology, culture. Abingdon, UK ; New York: Routledge.

David Reimann

August 1st, 2017

Reimann, D. A. (2016). Snub Polyhedral Forms Constructed from Flexible 60-120 Degree Rhombic Tiles. Proceedings of Bridges 2016: Mathematics, Music, Art, Architecture, Education, Culture, 443-444.

Abstract: We construct snub polyhedral forms using rhombi made from paper-backed wood veneer which are connected pairwise at corners using split-pin fasteners. Combining pairs of adjacent triangular faces into roughly 60°-120° rhombi result in polyhedron with even degree vertices. The flexibility of the materials allows the final closing of the object into a roughly spherical shape, despite eliminating the dihredral angle between the adjacent paired triangles. The open lattice construction yields elegant chiral symmetric forms with visual movement.

Holger Elischberger and Eric Hill

July 18th, 2017

Foster, S. D., Elischberger, H. B., & Hill, E. D. (2017). Examining the Link Between Socioeconomic Status and Mental Illness Prejudice: The Roles of Knowledge About Mental Illness and Empathy. Stigma and Health.

Abstract: Unlike people suffering from most physical afflictions, those with mental illness often face prejudice. This study examines the interplay of several key social and personal predictors of mental illness prejudice: SES, empathy, mental illness knowledge, and personal acquaintance with the mentally ill. As expected, analyses showed that higher subjective (although not objective) SES, lower levels of empathy, and lower levels of knowledge about mental illness all predicted increased prejudice against people suffering from clinical depression and nondescript mental illness—although not against people suffering from schizophrenia. Path analyses showed evidence for a mediating role of knowledge and empathy in the link between SES and prejudice. Implications of these findings for ways to diffuse mental illness prejudice are discussed.

Allison Harnish

July 17th, 2017

Haenn, N., Wilk, R. R., & Harnish, A. (Eds.). (2016). The Environment in Anthropology (Second Edition): A Reader in Ecology, Culture, and Sustainable Living. New York: NYU Press.

Drew Christopher

June 29th, 2017

Christopher, A. N. (2017). Interpreting and using statistics in psychological research. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

Jess Roberts

June 26th, 2017

Roberts, J. (2016). “hear the bird”: Sarah Piatt and the Dramatic Monologue. In A. Socarides & J. Putzi (Eds.), A History of Nineteenth-Century American Women’s Poetry (pp. 345-358). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Abstract: For much of the latter half of the nineteenth century, American poet Sarah Piatt wrote and published poems that gave voice to women and children, that grieved the loss of loved ones and moral certainty, and that revealed an unnerving inclination for self-conscious complexity. Some of the most culturally influential periodicals of her time – Atlantic Monthly, Harper’s Weekly, Scribner’s – circulated hundreds of her poems, as well as reviews of the many collections of these poems in book form. These reviews were, by turns, delighted and discomfited by what they called Piatt’s “distinctiveness,” heralding her as one of America’s geniuses even as they cautioned her against apparently unbecoming subtlety and obscurity.

Among the things that distinguished Piatt was her obvious interest in the contextual dynamism of spoken language and the poetic genre that seemed particularly well suited to capitalize on and examine it: the dramatic monologue. Over the course of her career, Piatt wrote more dramatic monologues than any other nineteenth-century American poet. Though many Piatt scholars have addressed dramatic monologues in the context of essays about Piatt’s irony or ambivalence, and in terms of her place among Confederate poets or in postbellum magazine culture, no one has yet read her dramatic monologues primarily through the lens of genre. That is what I do here. In the pages that follow, I describe the generic conventions of the dramatic monologue that are integral to Piatt’s experiments with it, building an interpretive framework out of the doubleness inherent to the genre. I ground that analysis in Piatt’s fifth collection, Dramatic Persons and Moods (1879), because it provides the poems I address with a shared print context, the very title of which directs the reader’s eye to genre. What emerges is a clear picture of how Piatt manipulated the particular conventions of the dramatic monologue in order to anatomize the way women maintained and disrupted the very conventions that restricted their range of experience and expression in their roles as mothers and daughters, readers and writers.

Nicolle Zellner

June 23rd, 2017

Zellner, N. E. B. (2017). Cataclysm No More: New Views on the Timing and Delivery of Lunar Impactors. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, 1-20.

Abstract: If properly interpreted, the impact record of the Moon, Earth’s nearest neighbour, can be used to gain insights into how the Earth has been influenced by impacting events since its formation ~4.5 billion years (Ga) ago. However, the nature and timing of the lunar impactors – and indeed the lunar impact record itself – are not well understood. Of particular interest are the ages of lunar impact basins and what they tell us about the proposed “lunar cataclysm” and/or the late heavy bombardment (LHB), and how this impact episode may have affected early life on Earth or other planets. Investigations of the lunar impactor population over time have been undertaken and include analyses of orbital data and images; lunar, terrestrial, and other planetary sample data; and dynamical modelling. Here, the existing information regarding the nature of the lunar impact record is reviewed and new interpretations are presented. Importantly, it is demonstrated that most evidence supports a prolonged lunar (and thus, terrestrial) bombardment from ~4.2 to 3.4 Ga and not a cataclysmic spike at ~3.9 Ga. Implications for the conditions required for the origin of life are addressed.

Greg Saltzman

June 23rd, 2017

Saltzman, G. M. (2016). Contested Terrain:  Developments in Labor Law Affecting Higher Education Since 2012. In H. S. Wechsler (Ed.), NEA 2016 Almanac of Higher Education (Washington:  National Education Association (pp. 31-38).

Vicki Baker

June 22nd, 2017

Baker, V. (2017). Organizational Contexts & Formal Mentoring Programs: Aligning Individual and Organizational Outcomes. In D. A. Clutterbuck, F. K. Kochan, L. Lunsford, N. Dominguez & J. Haddock-Millar (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Mentoring: SAGE Publishing.

Christopher Rohlman

June 22nd, 2017

Rohlman, C. E., Blanco, M. R., & Walter, N. G. (2016). Putting Humpty-Dumpty Together: Clustering the Functional Dynamics of Single Biomolecular Machines Such as the Spliceosome. In M. Spies & Y. R. Chemla (Eds.), Single-Molecule Enzymology: Fluorescence-Based and High-Throughput Methods (Vol. 581, pp. 257-283).

Abstract: The spliceosome is a biomolecular machine that, in all eukaryotes, accomplishes site-specific splicing of introns from precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs) with high fidelity. Operating at the nanometer scale, where inertia and friction have lost the dominant role they play in the macroscopic realm, the spliceosome is highly dynamic and assembles its active site around each pre-mRNA anew. To understand the structural dynamics underlying the molecular motors, clocks, and ratchets that achieve functional accuracy in the yeast spliceosome (a long-standing model system), we have developed single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) approaches that report changes in intra-and intermolecular interactions in real time. Building on our work using hidden Markov models (HMMs) to extract kinetic and conformational state information from smFRET time trajectories, we recognized that HMM analysis of individual state transitions as independent stochastic events is insufficient for a biomolecular machine as complex as the spliceosome. In this chapter, we elaborate on the recently developed smFRET-based Single-Molecule Cluster Analysis (SiMCAn) that dissects the intricate conformational dynamics of a pre-mRNA through the splicing cycle in a model-free fashion. By leveraging hierarchical clustering techniques developed for Bioinformatics, SiMCAn efficiently analyzes large datasets to first identify common molecular behaviors. Through a second level of clustering based on the abundance of dynamic behaviors exhibited by defined functional intermediates that have been stalled by biochemical or genetic tools, SiMCAn then efficiently assigns pre-mRNA FRET states and transitions to specific splicing complexes, with the potential to find heretofore undescribed conformations. SiMCAn thus arises as a general tool to analyze dynamic cellular machines more broadly.

Andy Boyan

June 8th, 2017

Sherry, J. L., Boyan, A., Knight, K., Edwards, C., & Hao, Q. (2017). Multiplayer games as the ultimate communication lab and incubator: A multi-media study. In R. Kowert & T. Quandt (Eds.), New Perspectives on the Social Aspects of Digital Gaming: Multiplayer 2. New York: Routledge.

Brad Rabquer

May 31st, 2017

Mor-Vaknin, N., Saha, A., Legendre, M., Carmona-Rivera, C., Amin, M. A., Rabquer, B. J., et al. (2017). DEK-targeting DNA aptamers as therapeutics for inflammatory arthritis. Nature Communications, 8, 14252.

Abstract: Novel therapeutics are required for improving the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. Aptamers are single-stranded RNA or DNA molecules that have recently shown utility in a clinical setting, as they can specifically neutralize biomedically relevant proteins, particularly cell surface and extracellular proteins. The nuclear chromatin protein DEK is a secreted chemoattractant that is abundant in the synovia of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Here, we show that DEK is crucial to the development of arthritis in mouse models, thus making it an appropriate target for aptamer-based therapy. Genetic depletion of DEK or treatment with DEK-targeted aptamers significantly reduces joint inflammation in vivo and greatly impairs the ability of neutrophils to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). DEK is detected in spontaneously forming NETs from JIA patient synovial neutrophils, and DEK-targeted aptamers reduce NET formation. DEK is thus key to joint inflammation, and anti-DEK aptamers hold promise for the treatment of JIA and other types of arthritis.

Holger Elischberger, Eric Hill and Lynn Verduzco-Baker

May 25th, 2017

Elischberger, H. B., Glazier, J. J., Hill, E. D., & Verduzco-Baker, L. (2017). Attitudes Toward and Beliefs about Transgender Youth: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Between the United States and India. Sex Roles, 76, 1-19.

Abstract: Using an internet-based survey, we examined attitudes toward transgender youth in the United States and India, two cultures with differences in conceptualizations of gender and treatment of transgender individuals in society, law, and religion. We found generally positive attitudes toward transgender youth in our U.S. (n = 218), but moderately negative ones in our Indian (n = 217), sample. Consistent with the literature on prejudice against transgender adults in many Western societies, general social conservatism in the form of religious beliefs and political ideology, gender-specific conservatism in the form of gender binary belief, and endorsement of environmental rather than biological causes of transgender identity were the best predictors of U.S. participants’ attitudes, although personal contact with gender and sexual minorities also played a role at the bivariate level. These findings suggest that the processes underlying prejudice against transgender youth are similar to those that foster adult-directed transphobia in that cultural context. In contrast, religion-based disapproval and environmental causal attributions were the best predictors of Indian respondents’ attitudes, whereas gender binary belief played only a minor role, and political conservatism and personal contact no role at all. Our regression analyses accounted for considerably more of the variability in U.S. than in Indian participants’ attitudes, highlighting the need for additional (qualitative) work to identify the factors that promote transprejudice in India. We discuss these findings in light of cross-cultural differences between the two countries in terms of our predictors and consider implications for efforts to reduce prejudice against transgender youth.

Albion College Student Co-Author: Jessica Glazier, ’16

David Seely

May 18th, 2017

Seely, D. G., Andrianarijaona, V. M., Wulf, D., Morgan, K., McCammon, D., Fogle, M., et al. (2017). Line ratios for soft-x-ray emission following charge exchange between ${\mathrm{O}}^{8+}$ and Kr. Physical Review A, 95(5), 052704.

Abstract: Lyman spectra and line ratios are reported for soft-x-ray emissions following the charge exchange process in 293, 414, 586, and 1256 km/s O8+ and Kr collisions. Lyman series from Ly-α to Ly-ɛ were resolved for the O7+ ion using a high-resolution x-ray quantum microcalorimeter detector. It is found that the observed line ratios are dependent on the nl distribution of the captured electron, and the Ly-α and Ly-β x-ray emissions are enhanced. Moreover, by comparing the measured line ratios to the constructed theoretical single charge exchange line ratios for O8+ +H, it is suggested that autoionizing double capture plays a significant role in the enhancement of Ly-α and Ly-β emissions for the present system.

Vicki Baker

May 18th, 2017

Baker, V. L., Greer, J., Lunsford, L. G., Pifer, M. J., & Ihas, D. (2017). Documenting the Aspiration Gap in Institutional Language About Undergraduate Research, Scholarship, and Creative Work. Innovative Higher Education, 42(2), 127-143.

Abstract: We conducted a content-analysis of the websites of 100 institutional members of the Council of Undergraduate Research in order to examine the relationship between messages communicated on websites as compared to messages expressed within institutional procedures and policies. Findings show that public research institutions were more likely than baccalaureate institutions to have an Office of Undergraduate Research. Further incentives and supports provided by such offices are predominantly directed to students. Lastly, our analysis of promotion and tenure policies reveals that only 14 institutions out of the 100 in our sample explicitly mentioned mentoring undergraduate researchers in the evaluation criteria for faculty members. We offer implications for research and practice.

Cliff Harris

May 18th, 2017

Kambhu, A., Gren, M., Tang, W., Comfort, S., & Harris, C. E. (2017). Remediating 1,4-dioxane-contaminated water with slow-release persulfate and zerovalent iron. Chemosphere, 175, 170-177.

Abstract: 1,4-dioxane is an emerging contaminant that was used as a corrosion inhibitor with chlorinated solvents. Metal-activated persulfate can degrade dioxane but reaction kinetics have typically been characterized by a rapid decrease during the first 30 min followed by either a slower decrease or no further change (i.e., plateau). Our objective was to identify the factors responsible for this plateau and then determine if slow-release formulations of sodium persulfate and Fe0 could provide a more sustainable degradation treatment. We accomplished this by conducting batch experiments where Fe0-activated persulfate was used to treat dioxane. Treatment variables included the timing at which the dioxane was added to the Fe0-persulfate reaction (T = 0 and 30 min) and including various products of the Fe0-persulfate reaction at T = 0 min (Fe2+, Fe3+, and SO42−). Results showed that when dioxane was spiked into the reaction at 30 min, no degradation occurred; this is in stark contrast to the 60% decrease observed when added at T = 0 min. Adding Fe2+ at the onset (T = 0 min) also severely halted the reaction and caused a plateau. This indicates that excess ferrous iron produced from the Fe0-persulfate reaction scavenges sulfate radicals and prevents further dioxane degradation. By limiting the release of Fe0 in a slow-release wax formulation, degradation plateaus were avoided and 100% removal of dioxane observed. By using 14C-labeled dioxane, we show that ∼40% of the dioxane carbon is mineralized within 6 d. These data support the use of slow-release persulfate and zerovalent iron to treat dioxane-contaminated water.

Roger Albertson

May 11th, 2017

Strunov, A., Schneider, D. I., Albertson, R., & Miller, W. J. (2017). Restricted distribution and lateralization of mutualistic Wolbachia in the Drosophila brain. Cellular Microbiology, 19(1).

Abstract: Microbial symbionts are universal entities of all living organisms that can significantly affect host fitness traits in manifold ways but, even more fascinating, also their behaviour. Although better known from parasitic symbionts, we currently lack any cases where ‘neurotrophic’ symbionts have co-evolved mutualistic behavioural interactions from which both partners profit. By theory, most mutualistic associations have originated from ancestral parasitic ones during their long-term co-evolution towards a cost-benefit equilibrium. To manipulate host behaviour in a way where both partners benefit in a reciprocal manner, the symbiont has to target and remain restricted to defined host brain regions to minimize unnecessary fitness costs. By using the classic Drosophila paulistorum model system we demonstrate that (i) mutualistic Wolbachia are restricted to various Drosophila brain areas, (ii) form bacteriocyte-like structures within the brain, (iii) exhibit strictly lateral tropism, and (iv) finally propose that their selective neuronal infection affects host sexual behaviour adaptively.

Lynn Verduzco-Baker

May 10th, 2017

Verduzco-Baker, L. (2017). “I Don’t Want Them to Be a Statistic”: Mothering Practices of Low-Income Mothers. Journal of Family Issues, 38(7), 1010-1038.

Abstract: U.S. discourse on low-income mothers frames them as social problems and this presumption of deficiency is reflected in studies of parenting logics and practices. Scholars often underestimate the sophistication of low-income mothers’ parenting logic and do not recognize that these mothers work as hard as and use (appropriately) different parenting logics than those of middle-class mothers. I investigate parenting logics of African American and White low-income mothers. These women demonstrate a logic that follows many of the same premises of middle-class parenting strategies but additionally seeks to address obstacles that prevent low-income youth from reaching goals: addiction, drug dealing, pregnancy, and the street. This logic leads to strategies that may appear to be inexpensive adaptations of middle-class practices, however, analysis of mothers’ narratives reveals they are not derivative but are intended to prepare children to avoid perils of their social context. This study illuminates a previously misunderstood version of intensive mothering.

Carrie Menold

May 4th, 2017

Sievers, N. E., Menold, C. A., Grove, M., & Coble, M. A. (2017). White mica trace element and boron isotope evidence for distinctive infiltration events during exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust. International Geology Review, 59(5-6), 621-638.

Abstract: Previous study of subducted continental crust within the Luliang Shan terrane in Northwest China has documented metasomatic formation of thick, hydrated phengite + garnet-rich selvages at the interface between mafic eclogite blocks and quartzofeldspathic host gneiss. Whole rock concentrations of Cs and Ba within the selvage are enriched by two orders of magnitude relative to the eclogite blocks and host gneiss. We performed in situ ion microprobe analyses of Li, Be, B, Rb, Sr, Cs and Ba and δ11B of phengite within the Luliang Shane terrane to better constrain the source(s) of the infiltrating fluid. The phengite within the selvage are enriched in Li, Cs and Ba and yield δ11B values between ?30? and ?9?, values that are lower than mantle values. High Ba/Rb, Cs/Rb coupled with low B/Be, B/Li and highly negative δ11B values indicate that the high-pressure fluid that formed the selvage was derived from highly devolatilized rocks within the subduction channel. In contrast, muscovite, which crystallized in the adjacent host gneiss during a subsequent lower pressure phase of fluid infiltration at approximately 0.9 GPa depths, has much lower Li, Cs and Ba relative to the high-pressure phengite. These retrograde muscovite have very high concentrations of B (up to 5500 ppm) and Be (up to 50 ppm) and high (?2 to +8?) δ11B values that are consistent with crystallization from a fluid derived from shallower and less devolatilized regions of the subduction zone. Additional host gneiss samples, regionally distributed and kilometres away from the studied area lack the B-rich signature and indicate that the late stage fluids were likely localized to the region near the studied traverse.

Andy Boyan

May 4th, 2017

Bowman, N. D., Hallett, J., Boyan, A., & Groskopf, J. (2017). Squid or Chalkie? The Role of Self-identify and Selective Perception in Processing Tendentious “Hillbilly” Humor. Ohio Communication Journal, 55, 16-28.

Heather Jordon

March 23rd, 2017

Jordon, H., & Morris, J. (2017). Cyclic m-cycle systems of complete graphs minus a 1-factor. Australasian Journal of Combinatorics, 67(2), 304–326.

Abstract: In this paper, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a cyclic m-cycle system of Kn − I when m and n are even and m | n.

Craig Streu

March 15th, 2017

Streu, C. N., Reif, R. D., Neiles, K. Y., Schech, A. J., & Mertz, P. S. (2016). Drug Synthesis and Analysis on a Dime: A Capstone Medicinal Chemistry Experience for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory. Journal of Chemical Education, 93(12), 2084-2088.

Abstract: Integrative, research-based experiences have shown tremendous potential as effective pedagogical approaches. Pharmaceutical development is an exciting field that draws heavily on organic chemistry and biochemistry techniques. A capstone drug synthesis/analysis laboratory is described where biochemistry students synthesize azo-stilbenoid compounds and test the biological activity of those compounds as well as a known inhibitor on mushroom tyrosinase using UV/vis-based kinetic assays. In this paper, three such successful azo-stilbenoid inhibitors of tyrosinase, representative student generated data, technical aspects of the experiments, and an interpretation of student feedback on the project as a whole are presented.

Vicki Baker

March 9th, 2017

Lunsford, L. G., & Baker, V. L. (2016). Great Mentoring in Graduate School: A Quick Start Guide for Protégés. Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools.

Abstract: Great Mentoring in Graduate School: A quick start guide for protégés provides a practical, student-oriented perspective informed by the authors’ experience and research on mentoring. The guide includes helpful advice and tips on a range of topics such as identifying a mentor, engaging with mentors to develop a professional identify, cultivating networks, and serving as a mentor to others.

Brad Chase

March 9th, 2017

Chase, B., Ajithprasad, P., & Rajesh, S. V. (2016). The Identification of Diversity: Material Culture and Social Practice in Harappan Gujarat. In V. Widorn, U. Franke & P. Latschenberger (Eds.), Contextualizing Material Culture in South and Central Asia in Pre-Modern Times (pp. 111-124). Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols.

Lynne Chytilo

March 9th, 2017

Chytilo, L. (Artist). (2016). Memory through the Senses. 100 Sculptors – 100 Sculptures Exhibit, Ella Sharp Museum of Art, Jackson, MI, November 12, 2016 – January 28, 2017.

Glenn Deutsch

March 9th, 2017

Deutsch, G. (2016). So Big Like That. Post Road Magazine, 30.

Karla McCavit and Nicolle Zellner

March 2nd, 2017

McCavit, K., & Zellner, N. E. B. (2016). Persistence of physics and engineering students via peer mentoring, active learning, and intentional advising. European Journal of Physics, 37(6), 065702.

Abstract: Albion College, a private, undergraduate-only, liberal arts college in Michigan, USA, has developed and implemented a low-cost peer-mentoring programme that blends personal and academic support to help students achieve academic success in the introductory courses required for the Physics Major or the Dual-Degree Program in Engineering. This enhanced mentoring programme provides much-needed assistance for undergraduate students to master introductory physics and mathematics coursework, to normalise the struggle of learning hard material, and to accept their identity as physics or engineering students (among other goals). Importantly, this programme has increased retention among entering science, technology, engineering and mathematics students at Albion College as they move through the introductory classes, as shown by a 20% increase in retention from first-semester to third-semester physics courses compared to years when this programme was not in place.