Posts Tagged ‘Heather Betz’

Heather Betz

Tuesday, March 27th, 2018

Betz, H. H., Eisenmann, J. C., Laurson, K. R., DuBose, K. D., Reeves, M. J., Carlson, J. J., et al. (2018). Physical Activity, BMI, and Blood Pressure in US Youth: NHANES 2003–2006. Pediatric Exercise Science, 1-8.

Abstract: Purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure in youth. Methods: Youth aged 8–18 years from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity (accelerometer) were included in the analyses. A total of 2585 subjects (1303 males; 47% of all 8- to 18-year-olds) met these criteria. Results: Obese youth had a systolic blood pressure that was 8 mm Hg higher than normal weight youth. A significant interaction between BMI and physical activity on blood pressure was found (P < .001), and group differences among the BMI/activity groups showed that the 3 obese groups and the overweight/least active group had significantly higher systolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group across all analyses. The overweight/least active and normal weight/least active groups had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group as well. Conclusions: This study showed a significant independent and combined association of BMI and physical activity with blood pressure in youth. Interventions need to focus on the reduction of fatness/BMI as a way to reduce the cardiovascular risk in youth.

Heather Betz

Thursday, August 25th, 2016

Guseman, E. H., Eisenmann, J. C., Betz, H. H., Pfeiffer, K. A., & Paek, H.-J. (2016). Screen time, sleep and overweight among low-income 8-12 year old youth. Journal of Behavioral Health, 5(2), 39-44.

Abstract: This paper describes a cross-sectional study of the combined influence of sleep and screen time behaviors on the odds of overweight and obesity among low-income youth. One of those most notable strengths of this study is the significant proportion of our sample who identify as members of an ethnic minority, most notably Hispanic and African American (approximately 84% of the total sample). This improves upon previous studies that often report data on almost entirely white samples, who often also do not qualify as low-income. Thus, we feel that this study makes a substantial contribution to the literature in spite of the null findings.

Heather Betz

Monday, July 27th, 2015

Alaimo, K., Carlson, J. J., Pfeiffer, K. A., Eisenmann, J. C., Paek, H.-J., Betz, H. H., et al. (2015). Project FIT: A School, Community and Social Marketing Intervention Improves Healthy Eating Among Low-Income Elementary School Children. Journal of Community Health, 40, 815-826.

Abstract: Project FIT was a two-year multi-component nutrition and physical activity intervention delivered in ethnically-diverse low-income elementary schools in Grand Rapids, MI. This paper reports effects on children’s nutrition outcomes and process evaluation of the school component. A quasi-experimental design was utilized. 3rd, 4th and 5th-grade students (Yr 1 baseline: N = 410; Yr 2 baseline: N = 405; age range: 7.5–12.6 years) were measured in the fall and spring over the two-year intervention. Ordinal logistic, mixed effect models and generalized estimating equations were fitted, and the robust standard errors were utilized. Primary outcomes favoring the intervention students were found regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grain bread during year 2. Process evaluation revealed that implementation of most intervention components increased during year 2. Project FIT resulted in small but beneficial effects on consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain bread in ethnically diverse low-income elementary school children.

Heather Betz

Monday, July 13th, 2015

Betz, H. H., Myers, J., Jaffe, A., & Smith, K. (2015). Reproducibility of the Veterans Physical Activity Questionnaire in an Elderly Population. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 12(3), 376-381.

Abstract: Background:Quantifying lifetime physical activity using self-reported measures is challenging due to reliance on recall, especially in older populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the 1-year reproducibility of the Veterans Physical Activity Questionnaire (VAPAQ) in a cohort of patients with documented abdominal aortic aneurysm disease (AAA). Methods: Subjects included men (n = 52) and women (n = 3) enrolled in AAA STOP, a randomized trial designed to test the ability of supervised exercise training to modify AAA biology and early disease progression. Results: The overall correlation coefficient for lifetime recreational energy expenditure between the 2 examinations was 0.93 (P < .001), with an overall difference of 26 kcal/week, a typical error (standard deviation of the differences) of 171 kcals/week, and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 15.5%. Conclusions: The VAPAQ is a reproducible tool to quantify lifetime energy expenditure in older adults with documented vascular disease.

Heather Betz

Monday, June 22nd, 2015

Betz, H. H., Myers, J., Jaffe, A., Smith, K., & Dalman, R. (2014). Influence of pedometers on habitual physical activity patterns in patients with vascular disease. Healthy Aging Research, 3(16).


Background: Pedometers are used to measure physical activity and motivate individuals to be more active. Little is known regarding the impact of the conditions when issuing a pedometer. We explored the influence of pedometers on daily physical activity in patients with cardiovascular disease, with and without additional information, direction, or encouragement.
Methods: Subjects included males (n=45) and females (n=5) (mean age 70.9 ± 7.4 years) with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease from the AAA STOP trial. The No Contact (NC) group (n=25) was mailed a packet containing a pedometer, 12 monthly log sheets, and 12 postage-paid return envelopes, but no letter or instructions. Interviews were conducted after 12 months. The Exercise Treatment (ET) group (n=25) received their pedometers at their first study visit; the pedometers were set up for each individual and goals were discussed. Additionally, they received weekly follow-up and reminders to use their pedometers and increase their daily physical activity.
Results: Twelve of the 25 (48%) NC subjects returned ≥6 monthly logs. Energy expenditure significantly differed between the NC and ET groups at both the 12-month (1331.8 ± 244.1 kcals/week vs. 2357.3 ± 369.6 kcals/week, respectively, p=0.02) and 24-month follow-up (1053.6 ± 227.3 kcals/week vs. 2371.9 ± 434.6 kcals/week respectively, p=0.01). Only 8% (2/25) in the NC group changed their exercise routine due to the pedometer, while 16% (4/25) increased their exercise volume due to wearing the pedometer.
Conclusions: Receiving a pedometer did not aid in increasing daily physical activity in adults with vascular disease. Education, goal setting, and encouragement are needed to supplement the use of a pedometer to increase energy expenditure.

Heather Betz

Thursday, May 7th, 2015

Paek, H. J., Jung, Y. M., Oh, H. J., Alaimo, K., Pfeiffer, K., Carlson, J. J., Wen, Y.L., Betz, H.H., Orth, J. (2015). A social marketing approach to promoting healthful eating and physical activity in low-income and ethnically diverse schools. Health Education Journal, 74(3), 351-363.

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the short-term outcome of the social marketing approach used in Project FIT, we developed a school- and community-based programme for promoting healthful eating and physical activity in kindergarten to 5th-grade children and their parents. Design: A 2-year quasi-experiment for children and two cross-sectional surveys for parents. Setting: We included low-income, urban and ethnically diverse elementary schools and neighbourhoods in Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. Method: Students in 3rd, 4th and 5th grades were surveyed in four intervention schools (four time points, N with at least one time point measurement = 664) and two control schools (N = 195). Parents of intervention students were surveyed at baseline (N = 286) and follow-up (N = 215). Key dependent variables included self-reported healthful eating and physical activity. Key independent variables included awareness, knowledge, motivation and attitudes towards Project FIT. Analysis: We analysed generalised linear mixed models and generalised estimation equation (GEE) models for the student surveys and mean difference tests and logistic regressions for the parent surveys. Results: The proportion of students who were aware of Project FIT increased over time. GEE models showed that selected key dependent variables were significantly associated with self-reported healthful eating and physical activity. Parents were more aware of Project FIT at follow-up compared to the baseline survey, and their attitudes were significantly associated with increased healthful eating (vegetables, fruits and whole grains). Conclusion: The social marketing approach utilised in Project FIT contributed to increasing awareness and achieving behavioural goals of healthful eating and physical activity.

Heather Betz

Tuesday, October 8th, 2013

Betz Hayes, H. M., Eisenmann, J. C., Pfeiffer, K., & Carlson, J. J. (2013). Weight Status, Physical Activity, and Vascular Health in 9- to 12-Year-Old Children.  Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 10(2), 205-210.

Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and joint association of weight status and physical activity on resting blood pressure and C-reactive protein in children. Methods: Participants were 174 (71 males, 103 females) children (mean age = 10.5 ± 0.4 yrs). Physical activity was self-reported, body mass index was calculated from measured height and body mass, and blood pressure was measured according to standard procedures. A subset of 91 children had C-reactive protein measured by fingerstick blood sample. Four weight/physical activity groups were created by cross tabulation of weight status classification and physical activity level. Results: The prevalence of low physical activity (< 5 days/wk moderate-vigorous activity) did not differ between overweight and normal weight children (50%). Physical activity was not correlated with C-reactive protein (r = 0.01; P = 0.91) and C-reactive protein was not significantly different between physical activity groups (P = 0.87). Physical activity did not modify the difference in blood pressure or C-reactive protein within weight categories. Conclusions: Fatness (specifically overweight and obesity), but not physical activity, was shown to be associated with blood pressure and C-reactive protein levels in children. Physical activity did not attenuate blood pressure or C-reactive protein in overweight and obese children.

Heather Betz

Tuesday, January 8th, 2013

Montoye, A. H., Pfeiffer, K. A., Alaimo, K., Betz, H. H., Paek, H.-J., Carlson, J. J., et al. (2013). Junk Food Consumption and Screen Time: Association With Childhood Adiposity. American Journal of Health Behavior, 37(3), 395-403.

Objectives: To determine the joint association of junk food consumption (JFC) and screen time (ST) with adiposity in children.  Methods: Two hundred fourteen (121 girls, 93 boys) third-to-fifth-grade students (54% Hispanic, 35% African American, 8% white) completed a lifestyle behavior survey, which included self-reported JFC and ST, as part of a school-based lifestyle intervention program. Results: Neither JFC nor ST, independently or jointly, was associated with adiposity measures. JFC and ST were significantly correlated (r = .375). Conclusions: The low achievement of physical activity and screen time recommendations and high prevalence of overweight/obesity in this mostly minority, low socioeconomic status population indicates a potential focus for intervention.

Heather Betz

Friday, August 31st, 2012

Hayes, H. M., Eisenmann, J. C., Heelen, K. A., Welk, G. J., & Tucker, J. M. (2011). Joint Association of Fatness and Physical Activity on Resting Blood Pressure in 5- to 9-Year-Old Children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 23(1), 97-105.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the joint association of fatness and physical activity on resting blood pressure in children. Subjects included 157 children (age 5.5–9.5 years). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, min/day), body fatness, and resting blood pressure were measured. Four categories were created by cross tabulation of high/normal levels of fatness and high/low levels of MVPA. There were significant differences in systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure across the fat/MVPA groups (p < .05). Regardless of participating in an acceptable level of MVPA, overfat children had higher resting systolic blood pressure than normal fat children. MVPA did not significantly attenuate blood pressure within a fat category.