Olapade, O., & Pung, K. (2012). Plant-associated bacterial populations on native and invasive plant species: comparisons between 2 freshwater environments. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 58. (In press).
Abstract: Plant–microbial interactions have been well studied because of the ecological importance of such relationships in aquatic systems. However, general knowledge regarding the composition of these biofilm communities is still evolving, partly as a result of several confounding factors that are attributable to plant host properties and to hydrodynamic conditions in aquatic environments. In this study, the occurrences of various bacterial phylogenetic taxa on 2 native plants, i.e., mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum L.) and cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum Bartram), and on an invasive species, i.e., garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande), were quantitatively examined using nucleic acid staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The plants were incubated in triplicates for about a week within the Kalamazoo River and Pierce Cedar Creek as well as in microcosms. The bacterial groups targeted for enumeration are known to globally occur in relatively high abundance and are also ubiquitously distributed in freshwater environments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of the bacterioplankton assemblages revealed that the majority of bacterial cells that hybridized with the different probes were similar between the 2 sites. In contrast, the plant-associated populations while similar on the 3 plants incubated in Kalamazoo River, their representations were highest on the 2 native plants relative to the invasive species in Pierce Cedar Creek. Overall, our results further suggested that epiphytic bacterial assemblages are probably under the influences of and probably subsequently respond to multiple variables and conditions in aquatic milieus.
Nwe, Soe Yu (“Joy”). “House.” Michigan Ceramic Art Association Michigan Mud Conference Award Winner: Michigan Ceramic Art Association, 2011.
Description: Junior Soe Yu Nwe (“Joy” on campus) took one of the top four student awards at the biennial Michigan Ceramic Art Association Michigan Mud conference held in October 2011.
Soe Yu Nwe’s winning sculpture, “House,” was inspired by a childhood spent on both sides of the border between Thailand and the Union of Myanmar. Many Thai families have “spirit houses,” small structures which are decorated and sometimes furnished for spirits tied to that land. Click on the image below for more information.
'House,' Soe Yu Nwe's winning entry
Burkholder, D. A., Heithaus, M. R., Thomson, J. A., & Fourqurean, J. W. (2011). Diversity in trophic interactions of green sea turtles Chelonia mydas on a relatively pristine coastal foraging ground. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 439, 277-293.
Abstract: Adult green sea turtles Chelonia mydas are often the largest-bodied herbivores in their communities and may play an important role in structuring seagrass and macroalgal communities. Recent studies, however, suggest that green turtles might be more omnivorous than previously thought. We used animal-borne video and nitrogen and carbon stable isotopic analysis of skin to elucidate diets of green turtles in the relatively pristine seagrass ecosystem of Shark Bay, Australia. Stable isotope values suggested that despite the presence of abundant seagrass resources, turtles assimilated most of their energy from a combination of macroalgae and gelatinous macroplankton (cnidarians and ctenophores). Video data suggested that macroplankton might be the most commonly consumed food source. Also surprising was the considerable variation in delta(13)C values, suggesting long-term dietary specialization by individual turtles. Overall, green turtle foraging under natural conditions may be less stereotyped than previously thought, and diets of green turtles inhabiting apparently similar ecosystems (e. g. seagrass-dominated ecosystems) may vary considerably across geographical regions. The apparently high degree of individual specialization in diets suggests that conservation efforts should account not only for the potential importance of non-benthic food sources for green turtle populations, but also for the possibility that subsets of the population may play different ecological roles and may be differentially vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts.
Edwards, S. (2012). Good Grief. Long Beach, CA: Write Bloody Publishing.
Publisher’s Description: Stevie Edwards’ debut book of poetry, Good Grief, catalogues her elegantly-wrought misadventures as a freshly-graduated, Michigan transplant stumbling over foal legs through Chicago and kneeling down to confront the wreckage of her skinned knees. Whether stopping to disinter some small ruin of a secondhand-clothes childhood, charting the reaches of her own privilege as a white woman in Chicago, or trying to recollect the reasoning behind last night’s bar receipts, Stevie’s voice — a treble, equal parts angst and grace — rumbles deep down in the belly of her poems, and lingers.
Bindman, N., Merkx, R., Koehler, R., Herrman, N., & van der Donk, W. A. (2010). Photochemical cleavage of leader peptides. Chemical Communications, 46(47), 8935-8937.
Abstract: We report a photolabile linker compatible with Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis and Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition that allows photochemical cleavage to afford a C-terminal peptide fragment with a native amino terminus. (Journal abstract)
Olapade, O. A., Pung, K., Goldman, E., & Lyons-Sobaski, S. (2011). Occurrence and diversity of epiphytic bacterial communities on two native plant species in a Michigan Creek. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 26(2), 267 – 276.
Abstract: We examined the occurrence and diversity of bacteria of different phylogenetic groups in epiphytic assemblages on two native Michigan plant species mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum) and cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum) when the plant leaves were submerged in fresh water. Fresh leaves were incubated in triplicate for about a week within a creek in Hasting, Michigan, and in laboratory microcosm to develop mature epiphytic assemblages. We enumerated bacteria in these assemblages by nucleic acid staining (i.e., total direct counts using 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenyllindole) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), while community diversity was determined based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. FISH indicated the dominance of members of the γ-Proteobacterial subclass (20%) on both plant species, while the 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed the predominance of the β-Proteobacteria (51%) on mayapple and the Fermicutes (26%) on cow parsnip, with the Bacteroidetes present equally within the epiphytic assemblages on both plants.
Togunde, D., & Rinkinen, J. (2010). Homogeneous Faith, Ethnic Diversity: Desirable and Undesirable Traits in a Marital Partner in Nigeria. International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations, 10(1), 219-238.
Abstract: This paper draws on survey data gathered in 2007 from over 2000 students in six Nigerian universities to investigate desirable and undesirable traits in a future marital partner and how these traits vary by gender. Until now, there is no single study in the African context that examines how measures of Westernization and globalization impact qualities desired in a mate. Findings indicate that a vast majority of respondents prefer to select their future marital partner on their own rather than through an arranged marriage. Yet an overwhelming proportion of students are unwilling to marry someone without the consent of their parents. Respondents would prefer not to marry a partner who: does not possess a comparable university education; does not want to have children; lack domestic skills; are not good at cooking; does not believe in God; and practices a different religion. However, respondents are more willing to marry someone who: comes from different tribal/ethnic group or nationality; and has had previous sexual relations. Significant gender differences were found to exist in traits such as domestic skills, age difference between spouses, level of education, parental socio-economic status, and desire to have children. The conclusion is that a simultaneous operation of traditional and contemporary mating dynamics is taking place in Nigeria. The urban-based respondents seem to hold on to some aspects of African traditional culture and practices regarding desirable and undesirable traits in a marital partner. At the same time, the criteria for mate selection are being impacted by forces of Westernization and globalization, such as the internet and foreign mass media.
Togunde, D., Osagie, S., & Rinkinen, J. (2010). Dating Patterns and Practices in the Era of Globalization in Nigeria. Global Studies Journal, 3(2), 67-84.
Abstract: This paper seeks to understand dating patterns and practices among Nigerian undergraduate students in the era of globalization. Drawing on data collected in 2007 from over 2,000 students in six universities, the paper investigates the patterns, avenues, and motivations for dating; explores the onset of dating and determines whether or not respondents have ever dated or are currently dating a person of the same sex; and whether they utilize the Internet, newspapers/magazines, and television programs to find their romantic partners. Results reveal that both the classrooms and religious places of worship (churches and mosques) are the dominant avenues for finding mates. An overwhelming proportion (70.5%) indicated that their most important reason for dating is to find a future marital partner, followed by the desire to experience love and companionship (22.7%). Number of partners dated at a time, use of the Internet, newspapers/magazines and television as avenues for meeting partners vary significantly by respondents’ gender, religion, and place of birth. However, an overwhelming number of both males and females believe that males should pay for dating expenses although a lower proportion does so in practice. An insignificant percentage of respondents admitted to having same-sex relationships. Overall, the conclusion is that a cultural dualism exists as Western dating culture co-exists with traditional dating practices. The study provides an opportunity to uncover the extent to which modernization and globalization affect intimate relationships such as dating in a transitional society.
Tingley, R., Herman, T., Pulsifer, M., McCurdy, D., & Stephens, J. (2010). Intra-Specific Niche Partitioning Obscures the Importance of Fine-Scale Habitat Data in Species Distribution Models. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19(9), 2455-2467.
Abstract: Geographic information systems (GIS) allow researchers to make cost-effective, spatially explicit predictions of species’ distributions across broad geographic areas. However, there has been little research on whether using fine-scale habitat data collected in the field could produce more robust models of species’ distributions. Here we used radio-telemetry data collected on a declining species, the North American wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta), to test whether fine-scale habitat variables were better predictors of occurrence than land-cover and topography variables measured in a GIS. Patterns of male and female occurrence were similar in the spring; however, females used a much wider array of land-cover types and topographic positions in the summer and early fall, making it difficult for GIS-based models to accurately predict female occurrence at this time of year. Males on the other hand consistently selected flat, low-elevation, riparian areas throughout the year, and this consistency in turn led to the development of a strong GIS-based model. These results demonstrate the importance of taking a more sex-specific and temporally dynamic view of the environmental niche.
Zabel, K. L., Christopher, A. N., Marek, P., Wieth, M. B., & Carlson, J. J. (2009). Mediational Effects of Sensation Seeking on the Age and Financial Risk-Taking Relationship. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(8), 917-921.
Abstract: The current study examined the potential mediating role of sensation seeking in the well-established negative relationship between age and financial risk-taking. A total of 299 participants, aged 17-90years, allocated hypothetical money into mutual funds that varied in risk and completed a sensation seeking measure. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that the amount of variability age accounted for in risk-taking (4.1%; [beta] =-.22) was significantly reduced when sensation seeking was controlled for (0.8%; [beta] =-.12). A Sobel test revealed that sensation seeking fully mediated the aforementioned relationship. Results suggest sensation seeking’s role as a mediator in more physiologically arousing risk-taking contexts (e.g., surfing). Discussion recommends investigating potential biologically and cognitively-rooted mediators and moderators of the age and risk-taking relationship.
Yoo, G. H., Kafri, Z., Ensley, J. F., Lonardo, F., Kim, H., Folbe, A. J., Won, J., Stevens, T., Lin, H. (2010). Xrp6258-Induced Gene Expression Patterns in Head and Neck Cancer Carcinoma. The Laryngoscope. Published online April 20, 2010.
Abstract: XRP6258 is a novel taxoid, which has antitumor activity in preclinical mouse orthotopic and human xenograft cancer models. However, limited XRP6258 studies have been performed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells (HNSCC). The objective of this study is to identify the antitumor activity of XRP6258 in HNSCC cell line models.HNSCC cells (HN30 and HN12) were exposed to either XRP6258 or docetaxel. XRP6258-induced growth suppression, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were measured. Further, XRP6258-induced expression patterns of selected genes were compared to docetaxel-induced expression patterns using Western blot analysis.XRP6258 suppressed proliferation and induced G2M arrest and apoptosis in both of the cell lines tested. XRP6258 and docetaxel produced similar alteration in the expression of cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin A and cyclin B1. The expression of E2F and EGFR were decreased in both XRP6258 and docetaxel-treated HNSCC cells. Finally, XRP6258 induced a greater level of bcl2 phosphorylation than docetaxel in HN12 cell line.XRP6258 appeared to have a similar mechanism of action as docetaxel in the two HNSCC cell lines studied. XRP6258 induced cell cycle arrest, growth suppression, and apoptosis by altering gene expression patterns similar to that induced by docetaxel. These preclinical experiments suggest that XRP6258 may be useful in treating HNSCC, and the aforementioned genes can potentially be used as surrogate endpoint biomarkers. Laryngoscope, 2010
Flannery, E., VanZomeren-Dohm, A., Beach, P., Simanton Holland, W., & Duman-Scheel, M. (2010). Induction of Cellular Growth by the Axon Guidance Regulators Netrin a and Semaphorin-1a. Developmental Neurobiology, 70(7), 473-484.
Abstract: Although neurite outgrowth has been linked to axon guidance regulators, the effects of guidance molecules on cellular growth are not well understood. Use of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, an epithelial tissue and a well-characterized system for analysis of cellular growth regulation, permits analysis of the impacts of guidance molecules on cellular growth in a setting in which axon guidance is not a confounding factor. In this investigation, the impacts of Netrin A (NetA) and Semaphorin-1a (Sema1a) signaling on cellular growth are examined during wing development. Levels of these genes were modulated in somatic clones in the developing wing disc, and clone areas, as well as individual sizes of clonal cells were assessed. NetA and Sema1a signaling were found to induce cellular growth in these assays. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analyses indicated that NetA and Sema1a signaling induce expression of several growth regulators, including myc, cycD, cdk4, PCNA, and MapK in the wing disc. These data illustrate that NetA and Sema1a can specifically promote growth through induction of key cellular growth regulators. The abilities of NetA and Sema1a to regulate cellular growth are likely critical to their functions in both nervous system development and oncogenesis. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Olapade, O. A., & Weage, E. A. (2010). Comparison of Fecal Indicator Bacterial Populations in Surface Waters of the Kalamazoo River, USA. Microbes and Environments, 25(1).
Abstract: Surface waters along the Kalamazoo River, USA, were examined for occurrence and population trends of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) with culture-based and culture-independent methods. The two methods recorded discrepancies in FIB counts, with the culture-independent method revealing more consistent numbers between the river sites. FIB cells that hybridized with the ECO1482 probe were highest in the downstream site, while the upstream site recorded higher ENF343 hybridized cells. Spatial and temporal differences in FIB populations were probably attributable to contrasting fecal pollution influences, vegetation type, varying environmental conditions as well as several in-stream factors between the two river sites.
Guenin-Lelle, D., & Harris, A. (2009). The Role of Music Festivals in the Cultural Renaissance of Southwest Louisiana in the Late Twentieth Century. Louisiana History, 50(4), 461-472.
Togunde, D., & Rinkinen, J. (2009). Agents of Change: Gender Differences in Migration Intentions among University Undergraduates in Nigeria. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 4(2), 175-190.
Abstract: This paper draws on surveys/interviews with 678 Nigerian university undergraduates to examine migration intentions and to detect if gender differences exist in reasons to migrate (or not) to the United States. This study is unique by focusing on future migration among university students, whose views and migration plans have been neglected in previous studies. As a departure from few previous scholarships in Africa, the paper introduces two new variables: perception of America as a land of socio-economic opportunities and whether respondents actively participate in the U.S. Visa Lottery Program. Findings indicate that a higher proportion of males than females cites better employment opportunities as reason for planning to move. However, more females than males mention security and better infrastructures available in America as motives for wanting to emigrate within the next five years. A higher proportion of women than men mention social and cultural ties with homeland and perception of racism in America as factors discouraging them from wanting to live in the United States; whereas, more men than women wanting to stay in Nigeria refer to patriotism/love of homeland as reasons. Perception of America as a land of opportunities and active participation in the U.S. Visa Lottery Program are among significant predictors of intentions to migrate. Findings have implications for policies aimed at improving quality of life in Nigeria, thereby, reducing emigration of “future leaders of tomorrow”.
Perkins, E., Stephens, J., Xiang, H., & Lo, W. (2009). The Cost of Pediatric Stroke Acute Care in the United States. Stroke, 40(8), 2820-2827.
Abstract: Background and Purpose–The cost of pediatric stroke care has received little attention, but the available data suggest it is expensive. To determine the cost of acute stroke, we analyzed a US national database.Method–We used the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID2003) to determine the hospital-based costs of acute stroke in children ages 3 months to 20 years. Discharges were selected if the first diagnostic position contained an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code pertaining to ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. We examined the relationship between cost and stroke type by adjusting for variables that predict the cost of adult stroke.Results–There were 2224 pediatric cases, after statistical weighting, discharged with a diagnosis of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke in KID2003. The estimated cost of acute pediatric stroke in the United States was $42 million in 2003. For the entire cohort, the mean cost of acute hospital care was $20 927 per discharge. The mean cost for ischemic stroke was $15 003, for intracerebral hemorrhage $24 117, and for subarachnoid hemorrhage $31 653. Stroke diagnosis, length of stay, hospital ownership, rural/urban teaching status, US geographical region, and discharge disposition were significantly associated with cost. Cost remained significantly associated with stroke diagnosis after adjusting for other predictors in the final multivariable regression model.Conclusions–Pediatric stroke is expensive, and the lifetime cost of care is likely greater for a child than an adult. The cost to the family and the larger society underscore the importance of pediatric stroke treatment and prevention.
Yoo, G. H., Subramanian, G., Ezzat, W. H., Stevens, T., Tulunay, O. E., Tran, V. R., et al. (2010). Intratumoral Delivery of Docetaxel Enhances Antitumor Activity of Ad-P53 in Murine Head and Neck Cancer Xenograft Model. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 31(2), 78-83.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the ability of intratumorally delivered docetaxel to enhance the antitumor activity of adenovirus-mediated delivery of p53 (Ad-p53) in murine head and neck cancer xenograft model. A xenograft head and neck squamous cell carcinoma mouse model was used. Mice were randomized into 4 groups of 6 mice receiving 6 weeks of biweekly intratumoral injection of (a) diluent, (b) Ad-p53 (1 Ã— 1010 viral particles per injection), (c) docetaxel (1 mg/kg per injection), and (d) combination of Ad-p53 (1 Ã— 1010 viral particles per injection) and docetaxel (1 mg/kg per injection). Tumor size, weight, toxicity, and overall and disease-free survival rates were determined. Intratumoral treatments with either docetaxel alone or Ad-p53 alone resulted in statistically significant antitumor activity and improved survival compared with control group. Furthermore, combined delivery of Ad-p53 and docetaxel resulted in a statistically significant reduction in tumor weight when compared to treatment with either Ad-p53 or docetaxel alone. Intratumoral delivery of docetaxel enhanced the antitumor effect of Ad-p53 in murine head and neck cancer xenograft model. The result of this preclinical in vivo study is promising and supports further clinical testing to evaluate efficacy of combined intratumoral docetaxel and Ad-p53 in treatment of head and neck cancer.
Simanton, W., Clark, S., Clemons, A., Jacowski, C., Farrell-VanZomeren, A., Beach, P., et al. (2009). Conservation of Arthropod Midline Netrin Accumulation Revealed with a Cross-Reactive Antibody Provides Evidence for Midline Cell Homology. Evolution & Development, 11(3), 260-268.
Abstract: Although many similarities in arthropod CNS development exist, differences in axonogenesis and the formation of midline cells, which regulate axon growth, have been observed. For example, axon growth patterns in the ventral nerve cord of Artemia franciscana differ from that of Drosophila melanogaster. Despite such differences, conserved molecular marker expression at the midline of several arthropod species indicates that midline cells may be homologous in distantly related arthropods. However, data from additional species are needed to test this hypothesis. In this investigation, nerve cord formation and the putative homology of midline cells were examined in distantly related arthropods, including: long- and short-germ insects (D. melanogaster, Aedes aeygypti, and Tribolium castaneum), branchiopod crustaceans (A. franciscana and Triops longicauditus), and malacostracan crustaceans (Porcellio laevis and Parhyale hawaiensis). These comparative analyses were aided by a cross-reactive antibody generated against the Netrin (Net) protein, a midline cell marker and regulator of axonogenesis. The mechanism of nerve cord formation observed in Artemia is found in Triops, another branchiopod, but is not found in the other arthropods examined. Despite divergent mechanisms of midline cell formation and nerve cord development, Net accumulation is detected in a well-conserved subset of midline cells in branchiopod crustaceans, malacostracan crustaceans, and insects. Notably, the Net accumulation pattern is also conserved at the midline of the amphipod P. hawaiensis, which undergoes split germ-band development. Conserved Net accumulation patterns indicate that arthropod midline cells are homologous, and that Nets function to regulate commissure formation during CNS development of Tetraconata.
Christopher, A. N., Saliba, L., & Deadmarsh, E. J. (2009). Materialism and Well-Being: The Mediating Effect of Locus of Control. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(7), 682-686.
Abstract: Previous research has established an inverse relationship between materialism and psychological wellbeing. To test the hypothesis that the link between materialism and well-being is due in part to an individual’s feelings of personal control, a sample of 440 adult Americans completed a widely-used materialism scale, the Levenson (1981) locus of control scales, and measure of positive and negative affect. Mediational analyses indicated that the significant relationship between materialism and negative affect was reduced significantly when powerful others and chance loci of control were each statistically controlled. Results are discussed with respect to the self-defeating cycle of using material possessions to boost affective well-being and in relation to other research that has explored reasons why materialism is related to lower level of psychological well-being. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Togunde, D., & Richardson, S. (2008). Children’s Educational and Occupational Aspirations in Urban Nigeria: Implications for Policy Development. Research Journal of International Studies(7), 19-31.
Abstract: This paper uses data from interviews with 1535 children and their parents in urban Nigeria to examine children’s educational and occupational aspirations, and parents’ aspirations for their children. The findings indicate that an overwhelming majority of children plan to attain post secondary college/university qualifications and engage in professional occupations such as doctors, teachers, lawyers etc. Parents’ aspirations for children are similar to children’s goals. There is no difference between male and female children regarding educational desires or career aspirations. Also, there is no significant variation in parents’ aspirations for males and female children. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that several factors including parental socio-economic variables such as education, occupation, and income strongly determine children’s educational and occupational aspirations. These findings have implications for policies aimed at strengthening human capital formation and development in Nigeria.
Yoo, G. H., Subramanian, G., Stevens, T., Piechocki, M. P., Ensley, J. F., Kucuk, O., et al. (2008). Effect of Docetaxel on the Surgical Tumor Microenvironment of Head and Neck Cancer in Murine Models. Archives of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery, 134(7), 735-742.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To identify the antitumor activity and wound-healing effect of docetaxel delivered in the surgical tumor microenvironment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). DESIGN: Control and experimental series. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: BALB/c and severe combined immunodeficiency mice. INTERVENTION: Intrawound (IW) docetaxel therapy was tested in 3 HNSCC xenograft and 2 taxane-resistant models. Intratumoral (IT) docetaxel therapy was further tested in the 2 taxane-resistant models. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tumor size, survival, and wound toxic effects were measured. The effect of docetaxel on various factors involved in wound healing and tumor growth within the surgical tumor microenvironment was also analyzed. RESULTS: In a pilot study using BALB/c mice, IW docetaxel therapy was not associated with problems in wound healing. Using the HN6, HN12, and HN30 HNSCC xenograft model, IW docetaxel prevented tumor growth and improved survival when compared with controls. No local or systemic toxic effect or wound-healing problem was noted. Using taxane-resistant xenograft lung cancer (H460/T800) and syngeneic salivary cancer (BALB/c mucoepidermoid carcinoma) models, IW therapy did not delay tumor growth. An antitumor effect was detected with repeated docetaxel injections in the H460/T800 taxane-resistant model but not in the BALB/c mucoepidermoid carcinoma model. Docetaxel inhibited the expression of growth factors and receptors in tumor cells; however, it did not inhibit the level of wound-healing growth factors in the surgical tumor microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS: These preclinical results support further testing of IW docetaxel treatment in HNSCC. Docetaxel appears to exert antitumor activity without affecting factors involved in wound healing in the tumor microenvironment.
Togunde, D., & Carter, A. (2008). In Their Own Words: Consequences of Child Labor in Urban Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 16(2), 173-181.
Abstract: This paper utilizes a 2002 datasets gathered through interviews with 1,535 children (aged 8-14 years) and their parents in urban Nigeria to examine the dangers and hazards reported by children who work in the urban economy. Findings indicate that slightly over half of interviewed child laborers are female; they begin work as early as age 7; and work for an average of 4 hours a day in order to contribute financially to the sustenance of the family; and to acquire training needed in future occupations. The children come mostly from large households of about 6 persons, where many of their parents have low levels of education, income, and occupational statuses. Furthermore, because the sample is urban based, children come mostly from nuclear and monogamous households. A significant percentage of working children are involved in motor accidents, face attempted kidnapping, rape, and sexual molestation. Many are also invited by gangsters to participate in robbery and anti-social activities. Others suffer from physical exhaustion and pains due to frequent long walks. These health problems have detrimental effects on children’s school attendance, punctuality, school performance, and leisure time. This study has policy implications for regulating child labor in Nigeria.
Christopher, A. N., Zabel, K. L., Jones, J. R., & Marek, P. (2008). Protestant Ethic Ideology: Its Multifaceted Relationships with Just World Beliefs, Social Dominance Orientation, and Right-Wing Authoritarianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(6), 473-477.
Abstract: To examine how different dimensions of the Protestant work ethic (PWE) are related to constructs indicative of conservative beliefs, 256 Americans completed an online survey including measures of PWE, belief in a just world, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the PWE dimensions of the belief that hard work yields desirable outcomes and anti-leisure predicted belief in a just world; the dimensions of centrality of work and anti-leisure attitudes predicted social dominance; and the dimensions of morality/ethics, self-reliance, anti-leisure predicted right-wing authoritarianism. We discuss how focusing on specific dimensions of PWE ideology, rather than a global score, enhances predictive ability and boosts understanding of relationships between PWE and other constructs. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCurdy, D. G., Painter, D. C., ’06, Kopec, M. T., ’05, Lancaster, D., ’06, Cook, K. A., & Forbes, M. R. (2008). Reproductive Behavior of Intersexes of an Intertidal Amphipod Corophium Volutator. Invertebrate Biology, 127(4), 417-425.
Abstract: Intersexes are common in crustaceans. Typically, these intersexes are sterile or function as females, but prior evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that intersexes of a key species of gammaridean amphipod, Corophium volutator, might function as males. We observed that intersexes of C. volutator behaved as males by crawling (mate-searching) on a mudflat during ebb tides and pairing in burrows with female amphipods. In the laboratory, intersexes and males did not differ in aspects of crawling such as movement rate and measures of burrow investigation. I`ntersexuality was costly in that intersexes crawled less often than males on a mudflat, formed fewer pairs with females than males, and remained in tandem less often with receptive females than males. The use of PCR-based identification methods failed to identify the presence of transovarial, feminizing, microsporidian parasites as a major cause of intersexuality in this species in that infected females did not produce broods that contained more intersexes than broods produced by uninfected females. Because intersexes may be mistaken as females, the percentage of functional males in amphipod populations may be underestimated: an important consideration given male limitation in populations of C. volutator. The occurrence of intersexes has significant implications for studies on the evolution and ecology of sex ratios, and the use of crustaceans as indicators of environmental quality.
Lo, W. D., Lee, J., Rusin, J., Perkins, E., & Roach, E. S. (2008). Intracranial Hemorrhage in Children: An Evolving Spectrum. Archives of Neurology, 65(12), 1629-1633.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) are uncommon in children, but are important causes of death and injury. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the risk factors for ICH have changed compared with those in earlier published series and to estimate the residual deficits in the survivors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: We performed a retrospective review of patients admitted to a single tertiary care, academic pediatric hospital from January 1, 2000, through May 31, 2007. Records were retrieved if the diagnostic codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, were pertinent to ICHs. We searched reports from computed tomograms and magnetic resonance images of the brain for terms pertaining to ICH. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk factors and functional outcome. Secondary measures were hemorrhage type and clinical presentation. RESULTS: We identified 85 children who had nontraumatic ICH. There were 10 subarachnoid, 61 intracerebral, and 14 subdural hemorrhages. Intracranial vascular anomalies were the most frequent risk factor, followed by congenital heart disease and brain tumors. Arteriovenous malformations did not account for as large a percentage as in previous studies. Twenty-nine children died. Of the 48 survivors for whom follow-up information was available, 26 had no reported deficits and 22 had deficits ranging from mild to severe. CONCLUSIONS: In this series, brain tumors and congenital heart disease accounted for a greater proportion of ICHs than in previous studies. The mortality due to ICH remains high but may be related as much to the severity of the underlying illnesses as to the hemorrhage itself. We found significant long-term morbidity, but more than half of the survivors for whom follow-up data were available had no detectable deficits. A long-term outcome study of pediatric ICH is needed.
Light, M. T., & Togunde, D. (2008). The Mexican Immigration Debate: Assimilation and Public Policy. International Review of Modern Sociology, 34(2), 279-293.
Abstract: This paper navigates through the contentious issues surrounding the contemporary Mexican immigration debate. It argues that an effective and practical immigration policy reform requires an understanding of the empirical reality of Mexican immigration rather than sweeping generalizations that exist in the literature. It focuses on a dual task of presenting a review of U.S. current and past policies on immigration; and an examination of data measuring Mexican assimilation. Findings indicate that previous immigration policies laid the groundwork for the current immigration picture; and that the measures of assimilation clearly indicate that Mexican immigrants are acculturating to the United States. It concludes that the politicization of immigration would make a comprehensive immigration reform difficult to achieve, leading to future increase in Mexican illegal immigration flows.
Christopher, A. N., Zabel, K. L., & Jones, J. R. (2008). Conscientiousness and Work Ethic Ideology. Journal of Individual Differences, 29(4), 189-198.
Abstract: Prior research on work ethic ideology has tended to neglect the multidimensional nature of such ideology. To examine how different facets of work ethic ideology may be rooted in the basic personality construct of conscientiousness, 299 Americans completed a 133-item online survey that contained six facets of conscientiousness and seven different dimensions of work ethic ideology. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the conscientiousness facets of dutifulness and achievement striving were the two most consistent predictors of seven dimensions of work ethic ideology. Subsequent dominance analyses suggested that achievement striving, followed by dutifulness, tended to predict the most work ethic dimensions. Discussion focuses on the theoretical importance of using work ethic dimensions rather than global work ethic scores in future research.
Christopher, A. N., & Wojda, M. R. (2008). Social Dominance Orientation, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Sexism, and Prejudice toward Women in the Workforce. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32(1), 65-73.
Abstract: This study examined how social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) were related to two different forms of prejudice against working women: employment skepticism and traditional role preference. Three hundred forty-nine American adults completed measures of SDO, RWA, employment skepticism, traditional role preference, hostile sexism, and benevolent sexism. Multiple regression analyses revealed that SDO accounted for significant variability in both employment skepticism and traditional role preference, and that RWA accounted for significant variability in traditional role preference. Mediational analyses suggested that hostile sexism attenuated the relationship between SDO and employment skepticism, and benevolent sexism attenuated the relationship between RWA and traditional role preference. Results are discussed with respect to different forms of prejudice against working women and how each one might be rooted in different ideological preferences.
Altermann, S. M., Richardson, R. D., Paradine, S. M., French, A. N., Page, T. K., Schmidt, R. K., et al. (2008). Catalytic Enantioselective Alpha-Oxysulfonylation of Ketones Mediated by Iodoarenes. European Journal of Organic Chemistry(31), 5315-5328.
Abstract: The alpha-oxysulfonylation of ketones catalysed by enantio enriched iodoarenes using mCPBA as stoichiometric oxidant is reported to give useful synthetic intermediates in good yield and modest enantioselectivity. We believe this to be the first report of an enantioselective organocatalytic reaction involving hypervalent iodine reagents which should open up a new field for enantioselective organocatalysis of oxidation reactions. ((C) Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008)
Richardson, R. D., Page, T. K., Altermann, S., Paradine, S. M., French, A. N., & Wirth, T. (2007). Enantioselective Alpha-Oxytosylation of Ketones Catalysed by Iodoarenes. Synlett(4), 538-542.
Abstract: The alpha-oxytosylation of ketones catalysed by enantioenriched iodoarenes using mCPBA as stoichiometric oxidant is reported to give useful synthetic intermediates in good yield and modest enantioselectivity. We believe this to be the first report of an enantioselective catalytic reaction involving hypervalent iodine reagents which should open up a new field for enantioselective organocatalysis of oxidation reactions.