Category: Drew Christopher (Faculty Co-author)

Ryan Walker, ’12, Ori Shewach, ’14, Zach Kribs, ’15

Walker, R. J., Kribs, Z. D., Christopher, A. N., Shewach, O. R., & Wieth, M. B. (2014). Age, the Big Five, and time-of-day preference: A mediational model. Personality and Individual Differences, 56, 170-174.

Abstract: This research examined the extent to which the Big Five personality factors mediated the relationship between age and time-of-day preference. A sample of 491 Americans (M-age = 32 yrs) completed the 240-item NEO-PI-R, the 19-item Home and Ostberg’s (1976) Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and provided demographic information. As demonstrated in previous research, correlations revealed that older people expressed a stronger morning preference. More importantly, using bootstrapping procedures, it was found that the Big Five factor of conscientiousness attenuated the relationship between age and time-of-day preference. These findings indicate that conscientiousness plays a significant role in the relationship between age and time-of-day preference.

Kevin Zabel, ’09

Zabel, K. L., Christopher, A. N., Marek, P., Wieth, M. B., & Carlson, J. J. (2009). Mediational Effects of Sensation Seeking on the Age and Financial Risk-Taking Relationship. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(8), 917-921.

Abstract: The current study examined the potential mediating role of sensation seeking in the well-established negative relationship between age and financial risk-taking. A total of 299 participants, aged 17-90years, allocated hypothetical money into mutual funds that varied in risk and completed a sensation seeking measure. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that the amount of variability age accounted for in risk-taking (4.1%; [beta] =-.22) was significantly reduced when sensation seeking was controlled for (0.8%; [beta] =-.12). A Sobel test revealed that sensation seeking fully mediated the aforementioned relationship. Results suggest sensation seeking’s role as a mediator in more physiologically arousing risk-taking contexts (e.g., surfing). Discussion recommends investigating potential biologically and cognitively-rooted mediators and moderators of the age and risk-taking relationship.

Liliane Saliba, ’07

Christopher, A. N., Saliba, L., & Deadmarsh, E. J. (2009). Materialism and Well-Being: The Mediating Effect of Locus of Control. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(7), 682-686.

Abstract: Previous research has established an inverse relationship between materialism and psychological wellbeing. To test the hypothesis that the link between materialism and well-being is due in part to an individual’s feelings of personal control, a sample of 440 adult Americans completed a widely-used materialism scale, the Levenson (1981) locus of control scales, and measure of positive and negative affect. Mediational analyses indicated that the significant relationship between materialism and negative affect was reduced significantly when powerful others and chance loci of control were each statistically controlled. Results are discussed with respect to the self-defeating cycle of using material possessions to boost affective well-being and in relation to other research that has explored reasons why materialism is related to lower level of psychological well-being. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keith Zabel, ’09

Christopher, A. N., Zabel, K. L., Jones, J. R., & Marek, P. (2008). Protestant Ethic Ideology: Its Multifaceted Relationships with Just World Beliefs, Social Dominance Orientation, and Right-Wing Authoritarianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(6), 473-477.

Abstract: To examine how different dimensions of the Protestant work ethic (PWE) are related to constructs indicative of conservative beliefs, 256 Americans completed an online survey including measures of PWE, belief in a just world, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the PWE dimensions of the belief that hard work yields desirable outcomes and anti-leisure predicted belief in a just world; the dimensions of centrality of work and anti-leisure attitudes predicted social dominance; and the dimensions of morality/ethics, self-reliance, anti-leisure predicted right-wing authoritarianism. We discuss how focusing on specific dimensions of PWE ideology, rather than a global score, enhances predictive ability and boosts understanding of relationships between PWE and other constructs. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keith Zabel, ’09

Christopher, A. N., Zabel, K. L., & Jones, J. R. (2008). Conscientiousness and Work Ethic Ideology. Journal of Individual Differences, 29(4), 189-198.

Abstract: Prior research on work ethic ideology has tended to neglect the multidimensional nature of such ideology. To examine how different facets of work ethic ideology may be rooted in the basic personality construct of conscientiousness, 299 Americans completed a 133-item online survey that contained six facets of conscientiousness and seven different dimensions of work ethic ideology. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the conscientiousness facets of dutifulness and achievement striving were the two most consistent predictors of seven dimensions of work ethic ideology. Subsequent dominance analyses suggested that achievement striving, followed by dutifulness, tended to predict the most work ethic dimensions. Discussion focuses on the theoretical importance of using work ethic dimensions rather than global work ethic scores in future research.

Mark Wojda, 07

Christopher, A. N., & Wojda, M. R. (2008). Social Dominance Orientation, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Sexism, and Prejudice toward Women in the Workforce. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32(1), 65-73.

Abstract: This study examined how social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) were related to two different forms of prejudice against working women: employment skepticism and traditional role preference. Three hundred forty-nine American adults completed measures of SDO, RWA, employment skepticism, traditional role preference, hostile sexism, and benevolent sexism. Multiple regression analyses revealed that SDO accounted for significant variability in both employment skepticism and traditional role preference, and that RWA accounted for significant variability in traditional role preference. Mediational analyses suggested that hostile sexism attenuated the relationship between SDO and employment skepticism, and benevolent sexism attenuated the relationship between RWA and traditional role preference. Results are discussed with respect to different forms of prejudice against working women and how each one might be rooted in different ideological preferences.

Jordan Troisi, ’06

Troisi, J. D., Christopher, A. N., & Marek, P. (2006). Materialism and Money Spending Disposition as Predictors of Economic and Personality Variables. North American Journal of Psychology, 8(3), 421-436.

Abstract: This research explored the relationships between materialism and money spending attitudes on impulse buying tendencies, attitudes toward debt, sensation seeking, and openness to experience. Students and other adults (N = 266) completed a materialism scale, portions of two money conservation scales, an impulse buying scale, an attitudes toward debt scale, a sensation seeking scale, and an openness to experience scale. Simultaneous-entry multiple regression analyses revealed that materialism and money conservation were predictive of impulse buying, sensation seeking, and openness to experience. Two marginally significant interactions emerged. Individuals less materialistic and tight with money had particularly negative attitudes toward debt, and individuals less materialistic and loose with money were particularly open to experience. Results are discussed with respect to how materialism may be related to a variety of individual difference variables, both at the main effect level and in interaction with money spending attitudes.

Kendra Malcomnson, ’04

Malcomnson, K. M., Christopher, A. N., Franzen, T., & Keyes, B. J. (2006). The Protestant Work Ethic, Religious Beliefs, and Homonegative Attitudes. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 9(5), 435-447.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the Protestant Work Ethic (PWE) on negative attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women (homonegativity). The influence of religious beliefs and the notion of homosexuality as a choice were also examined in combination with PWE in regards to homonegativity. Previous research suggested that those who subscribe to the PWE have more negative attitudes towards societal out-groups (e.g., African-Americans). Thus, it was hypothesized that those with high PWE scores would display more homonegative attitudes. A significant correlation between PWE and homonegativity supported this hypothesis. Multiple regression analyses revealed that PWE interacted with religious beliefs, and religious beliefs interacted marginally with the idea of homosexuality as a choice. Those with high religious beliefs and who strongly believed that homosexuality was a choice were more likely to have negative attitudes towards homosexuals. The implications of these findings are discussed, with particular respect to reducing homonegative attitudes.

Kristopher Gauthier

Gauthier, K. J., Christopher, A. N., Walter, M. I., Mourad, R., & Marek, P. (2006). Religiosity, Religious Doubt, and the Need for Cognition: Their Interactive Relationship with Life Satisfaction. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7(2), 139-154.

Abstract: Previous research has found a consistent, negative relationship between holding religious doubts & mental well-being, & a small positive relationship between religiosity & mental well-being. To assess the interrelationship between religious doubt, religiosity, & need for cognition on life satisfaction, a survey was administered to an almost exclusively Christian sample of 192 Americans drawn from undergraduates & alumni of a small mid-western college, undergraduates from a small south-eastern college, & several churches from the metro-Detroit area. Zero-order correlations revealed relationships between religiosity & life satisfaction, as well as religious doubt & life satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the three-way interaction of religiosity, religious doubt, & the need for cognition was predictive of life satisfaction. Significant two-way interactions also emerged for both gender & religiosity, & gender & religious doubt as predictors of life satisfaction. Based upon these findings, counseling applications are discussed, & the importance of probing for interactions in research on religious influences on well-being is espoused.

Ryan Morgan, Jordan Troisi

Christopher, A. N., Morgan, R. D., Marek, P., Troisi, J. D., Jones, J. R., & Reinhart, D. F. (2005). Affluence cues and first impressions: Does it matter how the affluence was acquired? Journal of Economic Psychology, 26(2), 187-200.

Abstract: To examine the effect of affluence source on person perception, 312 American undergraduates read one scenario that depicted either a man or a woman in one of six home settings: less affluent, affluent (source of affluence unspecified) or affluent, with affluence attributable to either promotions, entrepreneurial success, luck, or inheritance. Participants rated the scenario character on the Big Five Personality Factors and indicated their desire to have the character’s lifestyle. Multivariate analyses of variance and subsequent tests revealed that people who acquired affluence via external means (particularly inheritance) were perceived as less conscientious and open to experience than people who acquired affluence via internal means (particularly entrepreneurial success). Sources of affluence had no influence on preference for an affluent lifestyle. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ryan Morgan and Maggie Keller

Christopher, A. N., Morgan, R. D., Marek, P., Keller, M., & Drummond, K. (2005). Materialism and Self-Presentational Styles. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(1), 137-149.

Abstract: To examine the images that materialistic people wish to convey, we first asked 177 participants to complete the Richins and Dawson (1992) materialism scale and an adjective checklist that assessed five self-presentational styles. In a subsequent experiment, we primed 210 participants to experience one of five self-presentational styles and asked them to complete a state materialism scale. We expected that materialists would tend to avoid supplication and ingratiation, but would self-promote and intimidate. Across both studies, results supported the supplication and ingratiation hypotheses, but failed to show any link between either self-promotion or intimidation and materialism. We discuss how personal insecurity may be a precursor to materialism. We also discuss future research avenues with respect to probing the interrelationship between materialism, insecurity, and self-presentational considerations.

S. Victoria Kuo, ’02, Kristen Abraham, ’03, Leonard Noel, ’03 and Heather Linz, ’02

Christopher, A. N., Kuo, S. V., Abraham, K. M., Noel, L. W., & Linz, H. E. (2004). Materialism and Affective Well-Being: The Role of Social Support. Personality and Individual Differences, 37(3), 463-470.

Abstract: To test the hypothesis that the established relationship between materialism and psychological well-being would be eliminated or significantly attenuated when controlling for social support, 159 American college students completed the Richins and Dawson (1992) materialism scale, the Cohen and Hoberman (1983) Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and the Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect ( Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). Two hierarchical multiple regressions found support for this hypothesis with respect to positive affect, but not with respect to negative affect. We discuss our results in relation to research on social support and to research that has explored reasons why materialism is related to lower levels of psychological well-being. Future research directions are also discussed.

Emily Dobbins

Christopher, A. N., Marek, P., Dobbins, E. M., & Jones, J. R. (2004). Three Decades of Social Psychology: A Longitudinal Analysis of Baron and Byrne’s Textbook. Teaching of Psychology, 31(1), 31 – 36.

Abstract: We analyzed the first 10 editions of Baron and Byrne’s social psychology textbook. Modeling our methodology on Griggs and Jackson’s (1996) longitudinal analysis of Hilgard’s (1953) introductory psychology text, we ascertained changes in objective features, content, and contributors and contributions to social psychology. Changes in objective features partially mirrored changes in introductory texts. Topical coverage of areas related to social cognition increased. A small core of classic publications emerged. We discuss findings in relation to other analyses of textbooks, journal content, and researcher eminence.

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