Category: Uncategorized

Allison McClish, ’15

Erhard, K. F., Talbot, J., Deans, N. C., McClish, A. E., & Hollick, J. B. (2015). Nascent Transcription Affected by RNA Polymerase IV in Zea mays. Genetics, 199(4), 1107-U1355.

Abstract: All eukaryotes use three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) to create cellular RNAs from DNA templates. Plants have additional RNAPs related to Pol II, but their evolutionary role(s) remain largely unknown. Zea mays (maize) RNA polymerase D1 (RPD1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs), and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. Here, we define the nascent transcriptomes of rpd1 mutant and wild-type (WT) seedlings using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to identify the broader targets of RPD1-based regulation. Comparisons of WT and rpd1 mutant GRO-seq profiles indicate that Pol IV globally affects transcription at both transcriptional start sites and immediately downstream of polyadenylation addition sites. We found no evidence of divergent transcription from gene promoters as seen in mammalian GRO-seq profiles. Statistical comparisons identify genes and TEs whose transcription is affected by RPD1. Most examples of significant increases in genic antisense transcription appear to be initiated by 3′-proximal long terminal repeat retrotransposons. These results indicate that maize Pol IV specifies Pol II-based transcriptional regulation for specific regions of the maize genome including genes having developmental significance.

Haley Sztykiel, ’09

Brandt, A. E., Sztykiel, H., & Pietras, C. J. (2013). Laboratory Simulated Gambling: Risk Varies Across Participant-Stake Procedure. Journal of General Psychology, 140(2), 130-143.

Abstract: This study investigated whether risk taking on a laboratory gambling task differed depending on whether participants gambled with earned or experimenter-provided game credits. Participants made repeated choices between two options, one to wager game credits on a game that produced probabilistic gains and losses, and one to gain game credits with certainty. Choice was investigated across stake and no-stake conditions and condition order was counterbalanced across conditions. Risk taking was higher under stake than no-stake conditions, but only when stake conditions were experienced first. There was no effect on risk taking of the amount of the certain gain. Results are consistent with previous research showing that participant-stake procedures promote greater risk taking than procedures that allow participants to gamble with their own earnings, and also show that experience gambling with earned credits has an enduring effect on risk taking.

Soe Yu Nwe

Nwe, Soe Yu (“Joy”). “House.” Michigan Ceramic Art Association Michigan Mud Conference Award Winner: Michigan Ceramic Art Association, 2011.

Description:  Junior Soe Yu Nwe (“Joy” on campus) took one of the top four student  awards at the biennial Michigan Ceramic Art Association Michigan Mud conference held in October 2011.

Soe Yu Nwe’s winning sculpture, “House,” was inspired by a childhood spent on both sides of the border between Thailand and the Union of Myanmar.   Many Thai families have “spirit houses,” small structures which are decorated and sometimes furnished for spirits tied to that land.  Click on the image below for more information.

'House,' Soe Yu Nwe's winning entry

Derek Burkholder, ’04

Burkholder, D. A., Heithaus, M. R., Thomson, J. A., & Fourqurean, J. W. (2011). Diversity in trophic interactions of green sea turtles Chelonia mydas on a relatively pristine coastal foraging ground. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 439, 277-293.

Abstract: Adult green sea turtles Chelonia mydas are often the largest-bodied herbivores in their communities and may play an important role in structuring seagrass and macroalgal communities. Recent studies, however, suggest that green turtles might be more omnivorous than previously thought. We used animal-borne video and nitrogen and carbon stable isotopic analysis of skin to elucidate diets of green turtles in the relatively pristine seagrass ecosystem of Shark Bay, Australia. Stable isotope values suggested that despite the presence of abundant seagrass resources, turtles assimilated most of their energy from a combination of macroalgae and gelatinous macroplankton (cnidarians and ctenophores). Video data suggested that macroplankton might be the most commonly consumed food source. Also surprising was the considerable variation in delta(13)C values, suggesting long-term dietary specialization by individual turtles. Overall, green turtle foraging under natural conditions may be less stereotyped than previously thought, and diets of green turtles inhabiting apparently similar ecosystems (e. g. seagrass-dominated ecosystems) may vary considerably across geographical regions. The apparently high degree of individual specialization in diets suggests that conservation efforts should account not only for the potential importance of non-benthic food sources for green turtle populations, but also for the possibility that subsets of the population may play different ecological roles and may be differentially vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts.

Stevie (Stephanie) Edwards, ’09

Edwards, S. (2012). Good Grief. Long Beach, CA: Write Bloody Publishing.

Publisher’s Description: Stevie Edwards’ debut book of poetry, Good Grief, catalogues her elegantly-wrought misadventures as a freshly-graduated, Michigan transplant stumbling over foal legs through Chicago and kneeling down to confront the wreckage of her skinned knees. Whether stopping to disinter some small ruin of a secondhand-clothes childhood, charting the reaches of her own privilege as a white woman in Chicago, or trying to recollect the reasoning behind last night’s bar receipts, Stevie’s voice — a treble, equal parts angst and grace — rumbles deep down in the belly of her poems, and lingers.

Nicholas Herrman, ’12

Bindman, N., Merkx, R., Koehler, R., Herrman, N., & van der Donk, W. A. (2010). Photochemical cleavage of leader peptides. Chemical Communications, 46(47), 8935-8937.

Abstract: We report a photolabile linker compatible with Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis and Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition that allows photochemical cleavage to afford a C-terminal peptide fragment with a native amino terminus. (Journal abstract)

Timothy Stevens, ’10

Yoo, G. H., Kafri, Z., Ensley, J. F., Lonardo, F., Kim, H., Folbe, A. J., Won, J., Stevens, T., Lin, H. (2010). Xrp6258-Induced Gene Expression Patterns in Head and Neck Cancer Carcinoma. The Laryngoscope. Published online April 20, 2010.

Abstract: XRP6258 is a novel taxoid, which has antitumor activity in preclinical mouse orthotopic and human xenograft cancer models. However, limited XRP6258 studies have been performed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells (HNSCC). The objective of this study is to identify the antitumor activity of XRP6258 in HNSCC cell line models.HNSCC cells (HN30 and HN12) were exposed to either XRP6258 or docetaxel. XRP6258-induced growth suppression, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were measured. Further, XRP6258-induced expression patterns of selected genes were compared to docetaxel-induced expression patterns using Western blot analysis.XRP6258 suppressed proliferation and induced G2M arrest and apoptosis in both of the cell lines tested. XRP6258 and docetaxel produced similar alteration in the expression of cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin A and cyclin B1. The expression of E2F and EGFR were decreased in both XRP6258 and docetaxel-treated HNSCC cells. Finally, XRP6258 induced a greater level of bcl2 phosphorylation than docetaxel in HN12 cell line.XRP6258 appeared to have a similar mechanism of action as docetaxel in the two HNSCC cell lines studied. XRP6258 induced cell cycle arrest, growth suppression, and apoptosis by altering gene expression patterns similar to that induced by docetaxel. These preclinical experiments suggest that XRP6258 may be useful in treating HNSCC, and the aforementioned genes can potentially be used as surrogate endpoint biomarkers. Laryngoscope, 2010

Adrienne VanZomeren-Dohm, ’07, Paul Beach, ’08, Wendy Simanton Holland, ’07

Flannery, E., VanZomeren-Dohm, A., Beach, P., Simanton Holland, W., & Duman-Scheel, M. (2010). Induction of Cellular Growth by the Axon Guidance Regulators Netrin a and Semaphorin-1a. Developmental Neurobiology, 70(7), 473-484.

Abstract: Although neurite outgrowth has been linked to axon guidance regulators, the effects of guidance molecules on cellular growth are not well understood. Use of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, an epithelial tissue and a well-characterized system for analysis of cellular growth regulation, permits analysis of the impacts of guidance molecules on cellular growth in a setting in which axon guidance is not a confounding factor. In this investigation, the impacts of Netrin A (NetA) and Semaphorin-1a (Sema1a) signaling on cellular growth are examined during wing development. Levels of these genes were modulated in somatic clones in the developing wing disc, and clone areas, as well as individual sizes of clonal cells were assessed. NetA and Sema1a signaling were found to induce cellular growth in these assays. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analyses indicated that NetA and Sema1a signaling induce expression of several growth regulators, including myc, cycD, cdk4, PCNA, and MapK in the wing disc. These data illustrate that NetA and Sema1a can specifically promote growth through induction of key cellular growth regulators. The abilities of NetA and Sema1a to regulate cellular growth are likely critical to their functions in both nervous system development and oncogenesis. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Elizabeth Perkins, ’10

Perkins, E., Stephens, J., Xiang, H., & Lo, W. (2009). The Cost of Pediatric Stroke Acute Care in the United States. Stroke, 40(8), 2820-2827.

Abstract: Background and Purpose–The cost of pediatric stroke care has received little attention, but the available data suggest it is expensive. To determine the cost of acute stroke, we analyzed a US national database.Method–We used the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID2003) to determine the hospital-based costs of acute stroke in children ages 3 months to 20 years. Discharges were selected if the first diagnostic position contained an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code pertaining to ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. We examined the relationship between cost and stroke type by adjusting for variables that predict the cost of adult stroke.Results–There were 2224 pediatric cases, after statistical weighting, discharged with a diagnosis of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke in KID2003. The estimated cost of acute pediatric stroke in the United States was $42 million in 2003. For the entire cohort, the mean cost of acute hospital care was $20 927 per discharge. The mean cost for ischemic stroke was $15 003, for intracerebral hemorrhage $24 117, and for subarachnoid hemorrhage $31 653. Stroke diagnosis, length of stay, hospital ownership, rural/urban teaching status, US geographical region, and discharge disposition were significantly associated with cost. Cost remained significantly associated with stroke diagnosis after adjusting for other predictors in the final multivariable regression model.Conclusions–Pediatric stroke is expensive, and the lifetime cost of care is likely greater for a child than an adult. The cost to the family and the larger society underscore the importance of pediatric stroke treatment and prevention.

Timothy Stevens, ’10

Yoo, G. H., Subramanian, G., Ezzat, W. H., Stevens, T., Tulunay, O. E., Tran, V. R., et al. (2010). Intratumoral Delivery of Docetaxel Enhances Antitumor Activity of Ad-P53 in Murine Head and Neck Cancer Xenograft Model. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 31(2), 78-83.

Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the ability of intratumorally delivered docetaxel to enhance the antitumor activity of adenovirus-mediated delivery of p53 (Ad-p53) in murine head and neck cancer xenograft model. A xenograft head and neck squamous cell carcinoma mouse model was used. Mice were randomized into 4 groups of 6 mice receiving 6 weeks of biweekly intratumoral injection of (a) diluent, (b) Ad-p53 (1 × 1010 viral particles per injection), (c) docetaxel (1 mg/kg per injection), and (d) combination of Ad-p53 (1 × 1010 viral particles per injection) and docetaxel (1 mg/kg per injection). Tumor size, weight, toxicity, and overall and disease-free survival rates were determined. Intratumoral treatments with either docetaxel alone or Ad-p53 alone resulted in statistically significant antitumor activity and improved survival compared with control group. Furthermore, combined delivery of Ad-p53 and docetaxel resulted in a statistically significant reduction in tumor weight when compared to treatment with either Ad-p53 or docetaxel alone. Intratumoral delivery of docetaxel enhanced the antitumor effect of Ad-p53 in murine head and neck cancer xenograft model. The result of this preclinical in vivo study is promising and supports further clinical testing to evaluate efficacy of combined intratumoral docetaxel and Ad-p53 in treatment of head and neck cancer.

Timothy Stevens, ’10

Yoo, G. H., Subramanian, G., Stevens, T., Piechocki, M. P., Ensley, J. F., Kucuk, O., et al. (2008). Effect of Docetaxel on the Surgical Tumor Microenvironment of Head and Neck Cancer in Murine Models. Archives of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery, 134(7), 735-742.

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To identify the antitumor activity and wound-healing effect of docetaxel delivered in the surgical tumor microenvironment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). DESIGN: Control and experimental series. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: BALB/c and severe combined immunodeficiency mice. INTERVENTION: Intrawound (IW) docetaxel therapy was tested in 3 HNSCC xenograft and 2 taxane-resistant models. Intratumoral (IT) docetaxel therapy was further tested in the 2 taxane-resistant models. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tumor size, survival, and wound toxic effects were measured. The effect of docetaxel on various factors involved in wound healing and tumor growth within the surgical tumor microenvironment was also analyzed. RESULTS: In a pilot study using BALB/c mice, IW docetaxel therapy was not associated with problems in wound healing. Using the HN6, HN12, and HN30 HNSCC xenograft model, IW docetaxel prevented tumor growth and improved survival when compared with controls. No local or systemic toxic effect or wound-healing problem was noted. Using taxane-resistant xenograft lung cancer (H460/T800) and syngeneic salivary cancer (BALB/c mucoepidermoid carcinoma) models, IW therapy did not delay tumor growth. An antitumor effect was detected with repeated docetaxel injections in the H460/T800 taxane-resistant model but not in the BALB/c mucoepidermoid carcinoma model. Docetaxel inhibited the expression of growth factors and receptors in tumor cells; however, it did not inhibit the level of wound-healing growth factors in the surgical tumor microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS: These preclinical results support further testing of IW docetaxel treatment in HNSCC. Docetaxel appears to exert antitumor activity without affecting factors involved in wound healing in the tumor microenvironment.

Elizabeth Perkins, ’10

Lo, W. D., Lee, J., Rusin, J., Perkins, E., & Roach, E. S. (2008). Intracranial Hemorrhage in Children: An Evolving Spectrum. Archives of Neurology, 65(12), 1629-1633.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) are uncommon in children, but are important causes of death and injury. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the risk factors for ICH have changed compared with those in earlier published series and to estimate the residual deficits in the survivors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: We performed a retrospective review of patients admitted to a single tertiary care, academic pediatric hospital from January 1, 2000, through May 31, 2007. Records were retrieved if the diagnostic codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, were pertinent to ICHs. We searched reports from computed tomograms and magnetic resonance images of the brain for terms pertaining to ICH. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk factors and functional outcome. Secondary measures were hemorrhage type and clinical presentation. RESULTS: We identified 85 children who had nontraumatic ICH. There were 10 subarachnoid, 61 intracerebral, and 14 subdural hemorrhages. Intracranial vascular anomalies were the most frequent risk factor, followed by congenital heart disease and brain tumors. Arteriovenous malformations did not account for as large a percentage as in previous studies. Twenty-nine children died. Of the 48 survivors for whom follow-up information was available, 26 had no reported deficits and 22 had deficits ranging from mild to severe. CONCLUSIONS: In this series, brain tumors and congenital heart disease accounted for a greater proportion of ICHs than in previous studies. The mortality due to ICH remains high but may be related as much to the severity of the underlying illnesses as to the hemorrhage itself. We found significant long-term morbidity, but more than half of the survivors for whom follow-up data were available had no detectable deficits. A long-term outcome study of pediatric ICH is needed.

Daniel Holland

Holland, D., & Lee, J. (2003). A study of Z-scheme photosynthesisJournal of Undergraduate Research, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, 3, 78.

Jenny Tobin

Tobin, J., & Christen, D. K. (2003).  Uncovering the electrical properties of four potential super-conductors through construction of a new cryogenic system and associated LabVIEW program. Journal of Undergraduate Research, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, 3, 138.

WordPress Themes