Posts tagged: 2004

Jessica Kruer

Anes, M. D., & Kruer, J. L. (2004). Investigating Hemispheric Specialization in a Novel Face-Word Stroop Task. Brain and Language, 89(1), 136-141.

Abstract: We examined hemispheric specialization in a lateralized Stroop facial identification task. A 2 (presentation side: left or right visual field [LVF or RVF]) × 2 (picture emotion: happy or angry) × 3 (emotion of distractor word: happy, angry, or blank) factorial design placed the right hemispheric specialization for emotional expression processing and the left hemispheric specialization for verbal processing in conflict. Faces (from Ekman & Friesen, 1976) and emotion words were briefly displayed, and participants responded with keypresses corresponding to the picture emotion. As predicted, greater Stroop interference in identification accuracy was found with incongruent displays of facial expression in the LVF and emotion words in the RVF, and females exhibited less Stroop interference. Reaction times were moderated by emotion and visual field.

S. Victoria Kuo, ’02, Kristen Abraham, ’03, Leonard Noel, ’03 and Heather Linz, ’02

Christopher, A. N., Kuo, S. V., Abraham, K. M., Noel, L. W., & Linz, H. E. (2004). Materialism and Affective Well-Being: The Role of Social Support. Personality and Individual Differences, 37(3), 463-470.

Abstract: To test the hypothesis that the established relationship between materialism and psychological well-being would be eliminated or significantly attenuated when controlling for social support, 159 American college students completed the Richins and Dawson (1992) materialism scale, the Cohen and Hoberman (1983) Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and the Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect ( Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). Two hierarchical multiple regressions found support for this hypothesis with respect to positive affect, but not with respect to negative affect. We discuss our results in relation to research on social support and to research that has explored reasons why materialism is related to lower levels of psychological well-being. Future research directions are also discussed.

Emily Dobbins

Christopher, A. N., Marek, P., Dobbins, E. M., & Jones, J. R. (2004). Three Decades of Social Psychology: A Longitudinal Analysis of Baron and Byrne’s Textbook. Teaching of Psychology, 31(1), 31 – 36.

Abstract: We analyzed the first 10 editions of Baron and Byrne’s social psychology textbook. Modeling our methodology on Griggs and Jackson’s (1996) longitudinal analysis of Hilgard’s (1953) introductory psychology text, we ascertained changes in objective features, content, and contributors and contributions to social psychology. Changes in objective features partially mirrored changes in introductory texts. Topical coverage of areas related to social cognition increased. A small core of classic publications emerged. We discuss findings in relation to other analyses of textbooks, journal content, and researcher eminence.

Sarah Hudson and Adam Herrman

Erbeznik, M., Hudson, S. E., Herrman, A. B., & Strobel, H. J. (2004). Molecular Analysis of the Xylfgh Operon, Coding for Xylose Abc Transport, in Thermoanaerobacter Ethanolicus. Current Microbiology, 48(4), 295-299.

Abstract: A xylose ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transport operon, xylFGH, was cloned from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, a thermophilic ethanol-producing eubacterium. The cistrons code for a periplasmic D-xylose-binding protein (XylF, partial sequence of 250 amino acids), ATP-binding protein (XylG, 505 amino acids), and integral membrane protein (XylH, 388 amino acids). These results, together with previous work, indicate that duplicate copies of both xylF and xylH are present in the T. ethanolicus chromosome, suggesting ancient gene duplication or lateral gene transfer events. XylG resembles other eubacterial monosaccharide ABC-ATPases in that its two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) are highly homologous, yet significantly different with respect to putative catalytic residues. Unlike most other integral membrane ABC transport proteins, XylH apparently contains 11 or 12 transmembrane segments (TMS) and is similar to a small group of ABC permeases that defy the ldquo2 × 6rdquo helix paradigm. This is the first report of a monosaccharide ABC transport operon in a thermophilic anaerobic eubacterium.

Sean Logan and Michael Kopec

McCurdy, D., Forbes, M., Logan, S., Kopec, M., & Mautner, S. (2004).  The functional significance of intersexes in the intertidal amphipod Corophium volutator.  Journal of Crustacean Biology, 24, 261-265.

Abstract: We investigated the functional significance of intersexuality in the amphipod Corophium volutator, a key species in soft-bottom intertidal communities. Intersexes in this species possess morphological and anatomical characters of both males and females. Two broad types of intersexes were identified: those with nonsetose oostegites and two penial papillae (Type I), and those with setose oostegites and one or two penial papillae (Type II). We found little evidence that intersexes function as females, but some females housed experimentally with intersexes became ovigerous, indicating that intersexes can function as males. Females that mated with Type II intersexes produced smaller broods than those that mated with Type I intersexes or males, suggesting that this form of intersexuality may be costly to amphipods (most Type II intersexes possessed only a single testis). Male function of intersexes may be important in populations of C. volutator because males are frequently the limiting sex due to extremely female-biased sex ratios.

Nick Whitney

Whitney, N., Pratt Jr., H. L., & Carrier, J. (2004).  Group courtship, mating behaviour, and siphon sac function in the Whitetip Reef Shark, Triaenodon obesus. Animal Behaviour, 68, 1435-1442.

Abstract: We analysed video records of three mating events involving nine free-living whitetip reef sharks in Cocos Islands, Costa Rica to examine reproductive behaviour in this species. We describe several behaviours never before documented in this species, and four behaviours never before documented in any elasmobranch. Here, we also present the first hypothesis for the function of the male’s paired reproductive organs, the siphon sacs, to be based on observations of mating sharks. We introduce terminology for three separate siphon sac structural components that are externally visible during courtship and mating in this species. Based on our analyses, as well as evidence from past mating studies, the siphon sacs in whitetip reef sharks appear to be used to propel sperm into the female’s reproductive tract, not for flushing the female’s reproductive tract of sperm from previous males. We discuss the implications of ‘group courtship’, ‘siphon isthmus constriction’, ‘reverse thrusting’, ‘postrelease gaping’ and ‘noncopulatory ejaculation’.

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