Posts tagged: 2006

Jordan Troisi, ’06

Troisi, J. D., Christopher, A. N., & Marek, P. (2006). Materialism and Money Spending Disposition as Predictors of Economic and Personality Variables. North American Journal of Psychology, 8(3), 421-436.

Abstract: This research explored the relationships between materialism and money spending attitudes on impulse buying tendencies, attitudes toward debt, sensation seeking, and openness to experience. Students and other adults (N = 266) completed a materialism scale, portions of two money conservation scales, an impulse buying scale, an attitudes toward debt scale, a sensation seeking scale, and an openness to experience scale. Simultaneous-entry multiple regression analyses revealed that materialism and money conservation were predictive of impulse buying, sensation seeking, and openness to experience. Two marginally significant interactions emerged. Individuals less materialistic and tight with money had particularly negative attitudes toward debt, and individuals less materialistic and loose with money were particularly open to experience. Results are discussed with respect to how materialism may be related to a variety of individual difference variables, both at the main effect level and in interaction with money spending attitudes.

Kendra Malcomnson, ’04

Malcomnson, K. M., Christopher, A. N., Franzen, T., & Keyes, B. J. (2006). The Protestant Work Ethic, Religious Beliefs, and Homonegative Attitudes. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 9(5), 435-447.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the Protestant Work Ethic (PWE) on negative attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women (homonegativity). The influence of religious beliefs and the notion of homosexuality as a choice were also examined in combination with PWE in regards to homonegativity. Previous research suggested that those who subscribe to the PWE have more negative attitudes towards societal out-groups (e.g., African-Americans). Thus, it was hypothesized that those with high PWE scores would display more homonegative attitudes. A significant correlation between PWE and homonegativity supported this hypothesis. Multiple regression analyses revealed that PWE interacted with religious beliefs, and religious beliefs interacted marginally with the idea of homosexuality as a choice. Those with high religious beliefs and who strongly believed that homosexuality was a choice were more likely to have negative attitudes towards homosexuals. The implications of these findings are discussed, with particular respect to reducing homonegative attitudes.

Kristopher Gauthier

Gauthier, K. J., Christopher, A. N., Walter, M. I., Mourad, R., & Marek, P. (2006). Religiosity, Religious Doubt, and the Need for Cognition: Their Interactive Relationship with Life Satisfaction. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7(2), 139-154.

Abstract: Previous research has found a consistent, negative relationship between holding religious doubts & mental well-being, & a small positive relationship between religiosity & mental well-being. To assess the interrelationship between religious doubt, religiosity, & need for cognition on life satisfaction, a survey was administered to an almost exclusively Christian sample of 192 Americans drawn from undergraduates & alumni of a small mid-western college, undergraduates from a small south-eastern college, & several churches from the metro-Detroit area. Zero-order correlations revealed relationships between religiosity & life satisfaction, as well as religious doubt & life satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the three-way interaction of religiosity, religious doubt, & the need for cognition was predictive of life satisfaction. Significant two-way interactions also emerged for both gender & religiosity, & gender & religious doubt as predictors of life satisfaction. Based upon these findings, counseling applications are discussed, & the importance of probing for interactions in research on religious influences on well-being is espoused.

Natalie Dubois

Dubois, N. S., Kennedy, E. D., & Getty, T. (2006). Surplus Nest Boxes and the Potential for Polygyny Affect Clutch Size and Offspring Sex Ratio in House Wrens. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 273(1595), 1751-1757.

Abstract: Females of many species can gain benefits from being choosy about their mates and even exhibit context-dependent investment in reproduction in response to the quality of their breeding situation. Here, we show that if a male house wren is provided with surplus nest boxes in his territory, his mate lays a larger clutch with a significantly higher proportion of sons. This response to a territory characteristic directly associated with male competitive ability, and ultimately to male reproductive success, suggests that male competition over access to high-quality territories with surplus nest boxes (i.e. those able to support polygyny) may influence female reproductive investment decisions. The results of this study have interesting implications, particularly considering the important role that studies of cavity nesting birds utilizing nest boxes have played in advancing our understanding of behaviour, ecology and evolution.

Sarah Richardson

Togunde, D., & Richardson, S. (2006). Household Size and Composition as Correlates of Child Labour in Urban Nigeria. Africa Development, 31(1), 50-65.

Abstract: This paper draws on interviews with 1,535 parents and their children to examine the relationship between child labour and various household variables in urban Nigeria, where child labour studies have been very limited. We provide a comprehensive overview of the household factors and residential dynamics through which child labour evolves. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness of the household production theory in explaining the socio-economic ramifications and household context of child labour. Our findings indicate that although child labour is mostly caused by poverty and the need to prepare children with skills and training useful for future occupations, the size of the household, number of children in the household, number of children contributing to the household income, child’s age, and age at which child started working – are all significantly and positively correlated with children’s hours of work. However, gender compositions of the children or of the household head and age of the household head have little or no relationship with children’s hours of work. Additionally, parental socio-economic status and family structure variables are associated with fewer hours of children’s work. The findings have implications for policies aimed at regulating child labour in Nigeria.

Arielle Carter

Togunde, D., & Carter, A. (2006). Socioeconomic Causes of Child Labor in Urban Nigeria. Journal of Children & Poverty, 12(1), 73-89.

Abstract: Drawing on interviews with 1,535 children (aged 8-14 years) in urban Nigeria, this study introduces two new measures of child labor—child’s ownership of business and control over earnings—to supplement the conventional use of a child’s hours of work and to create a wider understanding of child labor. It examines the causes of child labor and how these measures vary by parental socioeconomic status. Study of this relationship is important for a deeper understanding of the varying patterns of child labor, as well as for clarifying the cultural and economic socialization of children. Our findings show that children of parents with higher socioeconomic status are more likely to own businesses rather than assist parents. These children are also more likely to keep and spend their work earnings. Our results also offer strong support of the poverty hypothesis and the socialization theory, which are often used to explain child labor in developing societies. Furthermore, our results indicate that children of parents with higher levels of socioeconomic status work fewer hours. These findings have implications for regulating child labor and for alleviating its consequences.

Kristine Degel

Degel, K. and D. G. McCurdy. 2006. Impacts of temperature on emergence of trematode cercariae from the mud snail Ilyanassa obsoleta (Say). MarSci.(3).

Abstract: We assessed prevalence of trematode parasites and impacts of temperature on shedding of parasites infecting mud snails, Ilyanassa obsoleta (Say), collected from Maine. Six species of trematodes were found to infect mud snails: Austrobilharzia variglandis, Zoögonus rubellus, Stephanostomum tenue, Gynaecotyla adunca, Himasthla quissetensis, and Lepocreadium setiferoides. As predicted, snails were more likely to shed cercarial forms of six species of trematodes when experimentally exposed to elevated water temperatures for single 24-hour periods. We argue that even small-scale changes in temperature might have implications for individuals and populations of marine animals that serve as second-intermediate hosts and final hosts of trematodes shed by infected mud snails (e.g., clams, baitworms, birds, fish, humans). We also establish new northern limits for several species of marine trematodes.

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