Posts tagged: 2008

Sarah Richardson, ’08

Togunde, D., & Richardson, S. (2008). Children’s Educational and Occupational Aspirations in Urban Nigeria: Implications for Policy Development. Research Journal of International Studies(7), 19-31.

Abstract: This paper uses data from interviews with 1535 children and their parents in urban Nigeria to examine children’s educational and occupational aspirations, and parents’ aspirations for their children. The findings indicate that an overwhelming majority of children plan to attain post secondary college/university qualifications and engage in professional occupations such as doctors, teachers, lawyers etc. Parents’ aspirations for children are similar to children’s goals. There is no difference between male and female children regarding educational desires or career aspirations. Also, there is no significant variation in parents’ aspirations for males and female children. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that several factors including parental socio-economic variables such as education, occupation, and income strongly determine children’s educational and occupational aspirations. These findings have implications for policies aimed at strengthening human capital formation and development in Nigeria.

Timothy Stevens, ’10

Yoo, G. H., Subramanian, G., Stevens, T., Piechocki, M. P., Ensley, J. F., Kucuk, O., et al. (2008). Effect of Docetaxel on the Surgical Tumor Microenvironment of Head and Neck Cancer in Murine Models. Archives of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery, 134(7), 735-742.

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To identify the antitumor activity and wound-healing effect of docetaxel delivered in the surgical tumor microenvironment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). DESIGN: Control and experimental series. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: BALB/c and severe combined immunodeficiency mice. INTERVENTION: Intrawound (IW) docetaxel therapy was tested in 3 HNSCC xenograft and 2 taxane-resistant models. Intratumoral (IT) docetaxel therapy was further tested in the 2 taxane-resistant models. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tumor size, survival, and wound toxic effects were measured. The effect of docetaxel on various factors involved in wound healing and tumor growth within the surgical tumor microenvironment was also analyzed. RESULTS: In a pilot study using BALB/c mice, IW docetaxel therapy was not associated with problems in wound healing. Using the HN6, HN12, and HN30 HNSCC xenograft model, IW docetaxel prevented tumor growth and improved survival when compared with controls. No local or systemic toxic effect or wound-healing problem was noted. Using taxane-resistant xenograft lung cancer (H460/T800) and syngeneic salivary cancer (BALB/c mucoepidermoid carcinoma) models, IW therapy did not delay tumor growth. An antitumor effect was detected with repeated docetaxel injections in the H460/T800 taxane-resistant model but not in the BALB/c mucoepidermoid carcinoma model. Docetaxel inhibited the expression of growth factors and receptors in tumor cells; however, it did not inhibit the level of wound-healing growth factors in the surgical tumor microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS: These preclinical results support further testing of IW docetaxel treatment in HNSCC. Docetaxel appears to exert antitumor activity without affecting factors involved in wound healing in the tumor microenvironment.

Arielle Carter, ’08

Togunde, D., & Carter, A. (2008). In Their Own Words: Consequences of Child Labor in Urban Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 16(2), 173-181.

Abstract: This paper utilizes a 2002 datasets gathered through interviews with 1,535 children (aged 8-14 years) and their parents in urban Nigeria to examine the dangers and hazards reported by children who work in the urban economy. Findings indicate that slightly over half of interviewed child laborers are female; they begin work as early as age 7; and work for an average of 4 hours a day in order to contribute financially to the sustenance of the family; and to acquire training needed in future occupations. The children come mostly from large households of about 6 persons, where many of their parents have low levels of education, income, and occupational statuses. Furthermore, because the sample is urban based, children come mostly from nuclear and monogamous households. A significant percentage of working children are involved in motor accidents, face attempted kidnapping, rape, and sexual molestation. Many are also invited by gangsters to participate in robbery and anti-social activities. Others suffer from physical exhaustion and pains due to frequent long walks. These health problems have detrimental effects on children’s school attendance, punctuality, school performance, and leisure time. This study has policy implications for regulating child labor in Nigeria.

Keith Zabel, ’09

Christopher, A. N., Zabel, K. L., Jones, J. R., & Marek, P. (2008). Protestant Ethic Ideology: Its Multifaceted Relationships with Just World Beliefs, Social Dominance Orientation, and Right-Wing Authoritarianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(6), 473-477.

Abstract: To examine how different dimensions of the Protestant work ethic (PWE) are related to constructs indicative of conservative beliefs, 256 Americans completed an online survey including measures of PWE, belief in a just world, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the PWE dimensions of the belief that hard work yields desirable outcomes and anti-leisure predicted belief in a just world; the dimensions of centrality of work and anti-leisure attitudes predicted social dominance; and the dimensions of morality/ethics, self-reliance, anti-leisure predicted right-wing authoritarianism. We discuss how focusing on specific dimensions of PWE ideology, rather than a global score, enhances predictive ability and boosts understanding of relationships between PWE and other constructs. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Daniel Painter, ’06, Michael Kopec, ’05, Diana Lancaster, ’06

McCurdy, D. G., Painter, D. C., ’06, Kopec, M. T., ’05, Lancaster, D., ’06, Cook, K. A., & Forbes, M. R. (2008). Reproductive Behavior of Intersexes of an Intertidal Amphipod Corophium Volutator. Invertebrate Biology, 127(4), 417-425.

Abstract: Intersexes are common in crustaceans. Typically, these intersexes are sterile or function as females, but prior evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that intersexes of a key species of gammaridean amphipod, Corophium volutator, might function as males. We observed that intersexes of C. volutator behaved as males by crawling (mate-searching) on a mudflat during ebb tides and pairing in burrows with female amphipods. In the laboratory, intersexes and males did not differ in aspects of crawling such as movement rate and measures of burrow investigation. I`ntersexuality was costly in that intersexes crawled less often than males on a mudflat, formed fewer pairs with females than males, and remained in tandem less often with receptive females than males. The use of PCR-based identification methods failed to identify the presence of transovarial, feminizing, microsporidian parasites as a major cause of intersexuality in this species in that infected females did not produce broods that contained more intersexes than broods produced by uninfected females. Because intersexes may be mistaken as females, the percentage of functional males in amphipod populations may be underestimated: an important consideration given male limitation in populations of C. volutator. The occurrence of intersexes has significant implications for studies on the evolution and ecology of sex ratios, and the use of crustaceans as indicators of environmental quality.

Elizabeth Perkins, ’10

Lo, W. D., Lee, J., Rusin, J., Perkins, E., & Roach, E. S. (2008). Intracranial Hemorrhage in Children: An Evolving Spectrum. Archives of Neurology, 65(12), 1629-1633.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) are uncommon in children, but are important causes of death and injury. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the risk factors for ICH have changed compared with those in earlier published series and to estimate the residual deficits in the survivors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: We performed a retrospective review of patients admitted to a single tertiary care, academic pediatric hospital from January 1, 2000, through May 31, 2007. Records were retrieved if the diagnostic codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, were pertinent to ICHs. We searched reports from computed tomograms and magnetic resonance images of the brain for terms pertaining to ICH. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk factors and functional outcome. Secondary measures were hemorrhage type and clinical presentation. RESULTS: We identified 85 children who had nontraumatic ICH. There were 10 subarachnoid, 61 intracerebral, and 14 subdural hemorrhages. Intracranial vascular anomalies were the most frequent risk factor, followed by congenital heart disease and brain tumors. Arteriovenous malformations did not account for as large a percentage as in previous studies. Twenty-nine children died. Of the 48 survivors for whom follow-up information was available, 26 had no reported deficits and 22 had deficits ranging from mild to severe. CONCLUSIONS: In this series, brain tumors and congenital heart disease accounted for a greater proportion of ICHs than in previous studies. The mortality due to ICH remains high but may be related as much to the severity of the underlying illnesses as to the hemorrhage itself. We found significant long-term morbidity, but more than half of the survivors for whom follow-up data were available had no detectable deficits. A long-term outcome study of pediatric ICH is needed.

Michael Light, ’07

Light, M. T., & Togunde, D. (2008). The Mexican Immigration Debate: Assimilation and Public Policy. International Review of Modern Sociology, 34(2), 279-293.

Abstract: This paper navigates through the contentious issues surrounding the contemporary Mexican immigration debate. It argues that an effective and practical immigration policy reform requires an understanding of the empirical reality of Mexican immigration rather than sweeping generalizations that exist in the literature. It focuses on a dual task of presenting a review of U.S. current and past policies on immigration; and an examination of data measuring Mexican assimilation. Findings indicate that previous immigration policies laid the groundwork for the current immigration picture; and that the measures of assimilation clearly indicate that Mexican immigrants are acculturating to the United States. It concludes that the politicization of immigration would make a comprehensive immigration reform difficult to achieve, leading to future increase in Mexican illegal immigration flows.

Keith Zabel, ’09

Christopher, A. N., Zabel, K. L., & Jones, J. R. (2008). Conscientiousness and Work Ethic Ideology. Journal of Individual Differences, 29(4), 189-198.

Abstract: Prior research on work ethic ideology has tended to neglect the multidimensional nature of such ideology. To examine how different facets of work ethic ideology may be rooted in the basic personality construct of conscientiousness, 299 Americans completed a 133-item online survey that contained six facets of conscientiousness and seven different dimensions of work ethic ideology. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the conscientiousness facets of dutifulness and achievement striving were the two most consistent predictors of seven dimensions of work ethic ideology. Subsequent dominance analyses suggested that achievement striving, followed by dutifulness, tended to predict the most work ethic dimensions. Discussion focuses on the theoretical importance of using work ethic dimensions rather than global work ethic scores in future research.

Mark Wojda, 07

Christopher, A. N., & Wojda, M. R. (2008). Social Dominance Orientation, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Sexism, and Prejudice toward Women in the Workforce. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32(1), 65-73.

Abstract: This study examined how social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) were related to two different forms of prejudice against working women: employment skepticism and traditional role preference. Three hundred forty-nine American adults completed measures of SDO, RWA, employment skepticism, traditional role preference, hostile sexism, and benevolent sexism. Multiple regression analyses revealed that SDO accounted for significant variability in both employment skepticism and traditional role preference, and that RWA accounted for significant variability in traditional role preference. Mediational analyses suggested that hostile sexism attenuated the relationship between SDO and employment skepticism, and benevolent sexism attenuated the relationship between RWA and traditional role preference. Results are discussed with respect to different forms of prejudice against working women and how each one might be rooted in different ideological preferences.

Shauna Paradine, ’08

Altermann, S. M., Richardson, R. D., Paradine, S. M., French, A. N., Page, T. K., Schmidt, R. K., et al. (2008). Catalytic Enantioselective Alpha-Oxysulfonylation of Ketones Mediated by Iodoarenes. European Journal of Organic Chemistry(31), 5315-5328.

Abstract: The alpha-oxysulfonylation of ketones catalysed by enantio enriched iodoarenes using mCPBA as stoichiometric oxidant is reported to give useful synthetic intermediates in good yield and modest enantioselectivity. We believe this to be the first report of an enantioselective organocatalytic reaction involving hypervalent iodine reagents which should open up a new field for enantioselective organocatalysis of oxidation reactions. ((C) Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008)

WordPress Themes