Posts tagged: 2009

Kevin Zabel, ’09

Zabel, K. L., Christopher, A. N., Marek, P., Wieth, M. B., & Carlson, J. J. (2009). Mediational Effects of Sensation Seeking on the Age and Financial Risk-Taking Relationship. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(8), 917-921.

Abstract: The current study examined the potential mediating role of sensation seeking in the well-established negative relationship between age and financial risk-taking. A total of 299 participants, aged 17-90years, allocated hypothetical money into mutual funds that varied in risk and completed a sensation seeking measure. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that the amount of variability age accounted for in risk-taking (4.1%; [beta] =-.22) was significantly reduced when sensation seeking was controlled for (0.8%; [beta] =-.12). A Sobel test revealed that sensation seeking fully mediated the aforementioned relationship. Results suggest sensation seeking’s role as a mediator in more physiologically arousing risk-taking contexts (e.g., surfing). Discussion recommends investigating potential biologically and cognitively-rooted mediators and moderators of the age and risk-taking relationship.

Alison Harris, ’04

Guenin-Lelle, D., & Harris, A. (2009). The Role of Music Festivals in the Cultural Renaissance of Southwest Louisiana in the Late Twentieth Century. Louisiana History, 50(4), 461-472.

Jacob Rinkinen, ’11

Togunde, D., & Rinkinen, J. (2009). Agents of Change: Gender Differences in Migration Intentions among University Undergraduates in Nigeria. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 4(2), 175-190.

Abstract: This paper draws on surveys/interviews with 678 Nigerian university undergraduates to examine migration intentions and to detect if gender differences exist in reasons to migrate (or not) to the United States. This study is unique by focusing on future migration among university students, whose views and migration plans have been neglected in previous studies. As a departure from few previous scholarships in Africa, the paper introduces two new variables: perception of America as a land of socio-economic opportunities and whether respondents actively participate in the U.S. Visa Lottery Program. Findings indicate that a higher proportion of males than females cites better employment opportunities as reason for planning to move. However, more females than males mention security and better infrastructures available in America as motives for wanting to emigrate within the next five years. A higher proportion of women than men mention social and cultural ties with homeland and perception of racism in America as factors discouraging them from wanting to live in the United States; whereas, more men than women wanting to stay in Nigeria refer to patriotism/love of homeland as reasons. Perception of America as a land of opportunities and active participation in the U.S. Visa Lottery Program are among significant predictors of intentions to migrate. Findings have implications for policies aimed at improving quality of life in Nigeria, thereby, reducing emigration of “future leaders of tomorrow”.

Elizabeth Perkins, ’10

Perkins, E., Stephens, J., Xiang, H., & Lo, W. (2009). The Cost of Pediatric Stroke Acute Care in the United States. Stroke, 40(8), 2820-2827.

Abstract: Background and Purpose–The cost of pediatric stroke care has received little attention, but the available data suggest it is expensive. To determine the cost of acute stroke, we analyzed a US national database.Method–We used the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID2003) to determine the hospital-based costs of acute stroke in children ages 3 months to 20 years. Discharges were selected if the first diagnostic position contained an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code pertaining to ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. We examined the relationship between cost and stroke type by adjusting for variables that predict the cost of adult stroke.Results–There were 2224 pediatric cases, after statistical weighting, discharged with a diagnosis of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke in KID2003. The estimated cost of acute pediatric stroke in the United States was $42 million in 2003. For the entire cohort, the mean cost of acute hospital care was $20 927 per discharge. The mean cost for ischemic stroke was $15 003, for intracerebral hemorrhage $24 117, and for subarachnoid hemorrhage $31 653. Stroke diagnosis, length of stay, hospital ownership, rural/urban teaching status, US geographical region, and discharge disposition were significantly associated with cost. Cost remained significantly associated with stroke diagnosis after adjusting for other predictors in the final multivariable regression model.Conclusions–Pediatric stroke is expensive, and the lifetime cost of care is likely greater for a child than an adult. The cost to the family and the larger society underscore the importance of pediatric stroke treatment and prevention.

Timothy Stevens, ’10

Yoo, G. H., Subramanian, G., Ezzat, W. H., Stevens, T., Tulunay, O. E., Tran, V. R., et al. (2010). Intratumoral Delivery of Docetaxel Enhances Antitumor Activity of Ad-P53 in Murine Head and Neck Cancer Xenograft Model. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 31(2), 78-83.

Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the ability of intratumorally delivered docetaxel to enhance the antitumor activity of adenovirus-mediated delivery of p53 (Ad-p53) in murine head and neck cancer xenograft model. A xenograft head and neck squamous cell carcinoma mouse model was used. Mice were randomized into 4 groups of 6 mice receiving 6 weeks of biweekly intratumoral injection of (a) diluent, (b) Ad-p53 (1 × 1010 viral particles per injection), (c) docetaxel (1 mg/kg per injection), and (d) combination of Ad-p53 (1 × 1010 viral particles per injection) and docetaxel (1 mg/kg per injection). Tumor size, weight, toxicity, and overall and disease-free survival rates were determined. Intratumoral treatments with either docetaxel alone or Ad-p53 alone resulted in statistically significant antitumor activity and improved survival compared with control group. Furthermore, combined delivery of Ad-p53 and docetaxel resulted in a statistically significant reduction in tumor weight when compared to treatment with either Ad-p53 or docetaxel alone. Intratumoral delivery of docetaxel enhanced the antitumor effect of Ad-p53 in murine head and neck cancer xenograft model. The result of this preclinical in vivo study is promising and supports further clinical testing to evaluate efficacy of combined intratumoral docetaxel and Ad-p53 in treatment of head and neck cancer.

Wendy Simanton, ’07, Stephanie Clark, ’06, Adrienne Farrell-VanZomeren, ’07, Paul Beach, ’08

Simanton, W., Clark, S., Clemons, A., Jacowski, C., Farrell-VanZomeren, A., Beach, P., et al. (2009). Conservation of Arthropod Midline Netrin Accumulation Revealed with a Cross-Reactive Antibody Provides Evidence for Midline Cell Homology. Evolution & Development, 11(3), 260-268.

Abstract: Although many similarities in arthropod CNS development exist, differences in axonogenesis and the formation of midline cells, which regulate axon growth, have been observed. For example, axon growth patterns in the ventral nerve cord of Artemia franciscana differ from that of Drosophila melanogaster. Despite such differences, conserved molecular marker expression at the midline of several arthropod species indicates that midline cells may be homologous in distantly related arthropods. However, data from additional species are needed to test this hypothesis. In this investigation, nerve cord formation and the putative homology of midline cells were examined in distantly related arthropods, including: long- and short-germ insects (D. melanogaster, Aedes aeygypti, and Tribolium castaneum), branchiopod crustaceans (A. franciscana and Triops longicauditus), and malacostracan crustaceans (Porcellio laevis and Parhyale hawaiensis). These comparative analyses were aided by a cross-reactive antibody generated against the Netrin (Net) protein, a midline cell marker and regulator of axonogenesis. The mechanism of nerve cord formation observed in Artemia is found in Triops, another branchiopod, but is not found in the other arthropods examined. Despite divergent mechanisms of midline cell formation and nerve cord development, Net accumulation is detected in a well-conserved subset of midline cells in branchiopod crustaceans, malacostracan crustaceans, and insects. Notably, the Net accumulation pattern is also conserved at the midline of the amphipod P. hawaiensis, which undergoes split germ-band development. Conserved Net accumulation patterns indicate that arthropod midline cells are homologous, and that Nets function to regulate commissure formation during CNS development of Tetraconata.

Liliane Saliba, ’07

Christopher, A. N., Saliba, L., & Deadmarsh, E. J. (2009). Materialism and Well-Being: The Mediating Effect of Locus of Control. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(7), 682-686.

Abstract: Previous research has established an inverse relationship between materialism and psychological wellbeing. To test the hypothesis that the link between materialism and well-being is due in part to an individual’s feelings of personal control, a sample of 440 adult Americans completed a widely-used materialism scale, the Levenson (1981) locus of control scales, and measure of positive and negative affect. Mediational analyses indicated that the significant relationship between materialism and negative affect was reduced significantly when powerful others and chance loci of control were each statistically controlled. Results are discussed with respect to the self-defeating cycle of using material possessions to boost affective well-being and in relation to other research that has explored reasons why materialism is related to lower level of psychological well-being. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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