Posts tagged: 2018

Megan Wickens, ’15

Wongupparaj, P., Sumich, A., Wickens, M., Kumari, V., & Morris, R. G. (2018). Individual differences in working memory and general intelligence indexed by P200 and P300: A latent variable model. Biological Psychology, 139, 96-105.

Abstract: A robust relationship between working memory (WM) and general intelligence (g) has been well established. Nevertheless, explanations for this relationship in terms of underlying neurocognitive processes are still inadequate. This study addresses this issue using an individual differences approach in which Central Executive System (CES) and Short-Term Storage (STS) components of WM are measured comprehensively and examined for their relationship with g via event-related potentials components (P200 and P300) as mediators. Participants (n = 115) completed tests of the WM, CES and STS, as well as g. P200 and P300 components were recorded during 3-back WM task performance. Structural equation modelling showed significant negative associations between the P200 latency for target stimuli and CES shifting processes, and between the P300 amplitude for target stimuli and CES inhibition and updating processes. The relationship between CES processes and g was mediated in a localized fashion by the P300 amplitude. These findings further support the notion that the CES has a multidimensional structure and, importantly, reveal that the inhibition and updating functions of the CES are crucial in explaining the relationship between WM and g. Negative relations between ERP indices (P200 latency and P300 amplitude for target stimuli) and g support a neural efficiency hypothesis related to high intelligence.

Hannah Schoon, ’19

Wenzl, K., Manske, M. K., Sarangi, V., Asmann, Y. W., Greipp, P. T., Schoon, H. R., . . . Novak, A. J. (2018). Loss of TNFAIP3 enhances MYD88L265P-driven signaling in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood Cancer Journal, 8(10), 97.

Abstract: MYD88 mutations are one of the most recurrent mutations in hematologic malignancies. However, recent mouse models suggest that MYD88L265P alone may not be sufficient to induce tumor formation. Interplay between MYD88L265P and other genetic events is further supported by the fact that TNFAIP3 (A20) inactivation often accompanies MYD88L265P. However, we are still lacking information about the consequence of MYD88L265P in combination with TNFAIP3 loss in human B cell lymphoma. Review of our genetic data on diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM), found that a large percentage of DLBCL and WM cases that have a MYD88 mutation also harbor a TNFAIP3 loss, 55% DLBCL and 28% of WM, respectively. To mimic this combination of genetic events, we used genomic editing technology to knock out TNFAIP3 in MYD88L265P non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) cell lines. Loss of A20 expression resulted in increased NF-κB and p38 activity leading to upregulation of the NF-κB target genes BCL2 and MYC. Furthermore, we detected the increased production of IL-6 and CXCL10 which led to an upregulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Overall, these results suggest that MYD88L265P signaling can be enhanced by a second genetic alteration in TNFAIP3 and highlights a potential opportunity for therapeutic targeting.

Kylie Heitman, ’17

Heitman, K., Rabquer, B., Heitman, E., Streu, C., & Anderson, P. (2018). The Use of Lavender Aromatherapy to Relieve Stress in Trailered Horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 63, 8-12.

Abstract: Competition horses are susceptible to high stress levels. Lavender aromatherapy (LA) is legal, has the potential to reduce stress, and is a relatively unexplored area of equine physiology. We hypothesis that LA has positive effects on helping horses cope with stress. We predict that these effects can be measured in lowered cortisol, norepinephrine, and heart rate levels in horses that have been subjected to lavender aromatherapy during a stressor. Eight horses were used in a crossover study and were transported for 15 minutes in a horse trailer. During the trailer ride (stressor), the horses received water aromatherapy as the control, and LA as the treatment. Three measurements of heart rates and blood draws were taken on each horse: (1) baseline—before loading into the trailer, (2) stressed—immediately after the trailer ride, and (3) recovery—50 minutes after the trailer ride. The blood samples were used to quantify serum cortisol levels. In both the control and treatment horses, the average difference between the baseline and stressed measurements of heart rate (HR) and cortisol increased when the horses were transported (control HR = 10.6 b/m ± 2.6 standard error [SE]; treatment HR = 9.3 b/m ± 2.6 SE; control cortisol = 3,747.2 pg/uL ± 864.2 SE; treatment cortisol = 2,511.8 pg/uL ± 1009.9 SE). In the control and treatment horses, there was no difference in the HRs of the control and treatment horses (P-value = .37); there was a difference in cortisol levels (P = .038), which provides evidence to conclude that cortisol levels were lower in horses that were subjected to LA during a stressor.

Corbin Livingston, ’16

Dominguez, C., Metz, K. M., Hoque, M. K., Browne, M. P., Esteban-Tejeda, L., Livingston, C. K., et al. (2018). Continuous Flow Synthesis of Platinum Nanoparticles in Porous Carbon as Durable and Methanol-Tolerant Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction. Chemelectrochem, 5(1), 62-70.

Abstract: The development and commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) as energy conversion devices remains a challenge despite their advantages in terms of energy density and energy-conversion efficiency. The bottleneck for the development of DMFCs is mainly caused by the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of fuel cells, and the effect of the so-called methanol crossover in state-of-the-art Pt/C electrocatalysts. Herein, we report for the first time an easily scalable continuous flow method based on ultraspray pyrolysis (USP) for the preparation of Pt nanoparticles directly embedded on highly porous carbon spheres. A study on the effect that post-synthesis treatment procedures have on the level of graphitization and catalytic properties is described. Use of USP results in a substantial reduction of the final Pt content with respect to typical Pt/C electrocatalysts, while yielding also excellent durability and tolerance to methanol crossover under acidic conditions. These results demonstrate that the USP method reported herein is a good candidate for its use in the preparation of ORR catalysts in commercial applications.

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