Posts tagged: Anthropology & Sociology

Amanda Bedker, ’17 and Sydney Roeder, ’17

Harnish, A., Hazlewood, J. A., Bedker, A., & Roeder, S. (2016). A Wonderfully Incomplete Bibliography of Action-Oriented Anthropology and Applied Environmental Social Science. In N. Haenn, R. Wilk, & A. Harnish (Eds.), The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology, Culture, and Sustainable Living (Second edition ed., pp. 482-508). New York: New York University Press.


Jessica Glazier, ’15

Elischberger, H. B., Glazier, J. J., Hill, E. D., & Verduzco-Baker, L. (2017). Attitudes Toward and Beliefs about Transgender Youth: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Between the United States and India. Sex Roles, 76, 1-19.

Abstract: Using an internet-based survey, we examined attitudes toward transgender youth in the United States and India, two cultures with differences in conceptualizations of gender and treatment of transgender individuals in society, law, and religion. We found generally positive attitudes toward transgender youth in our U.S. (n = 218), but moderately negative ones in our Indian (n = 217), sample. Consistent with the literature on prejudice against transgender adults in many Western societies, general social conservatism in the form of religious beliefs and political ideology, gender-specific conservatism in the form of gender binary belief, and endorsement of environmental rather than biological causes of transgender identity were the best predictors of U.S. participants’ attitudes, although personal contact with gender and sexual minorities also played a role at the bivariate level. These findings suggest that the processes underlying prejudice against transgender youth are similar to those that foster adult-directed transphobia in that cultural context. In contrast, religion-based disapproval and environmental causal attributions were the best predictors of Indian respondents’ attitudes, whereas gender binary belief played only a minor role, and political conservatism and personal contact no role at all. Our regression analyses accounted for considerably more of the variability in U.S. than in Indian participants’ attitudes, highlighting the need for additional (qualitative) work to identify the factors that promote transprejudice in India. We discuss these findings in light of cross-cultural differences between the two countries in terms of our predictors and consider implications for efforts to reduce prejudice against transgender youth.

Jessica Glazier, ’15

Elischberger, H. B., Glazier, J. J., Hill, E. D., & Verduzco-Baker, L. (2016). “Boys Don’t Cry”—or Do They? Adult Attitudes Toward and Beliefs About Transgender Youth. Sex Roles, 1-18.

Abstract: The present survey study examined the attitudes of U.S. adults toward transgender children and adolescents, as well as their behavioral intentions, in two hypothetical scenarios involving gender variant youth. Participants recruited online (N = 281) reported generally favorable attitudes toward transgender minors, but expressed some hesitation to allow a transgender child to use the restroom aligned with their gender as opposed to their birth sex or to share a room with same gender peers on a school trip, possibly due to conflating gender identity with sexual orientation in these situations. Attitudes were less positive in respondents who reported a religious affiliation, conservative social political views, and stronger conformity to certain traditional gender norms—particularly in men. Even after controlling for these factors, stronger belief in environmental versus biological causes of transgender identity was linked to more negative attitudes. Participants’ behavioral intentions were driven partly by their attitudes and causal attributions, but also by their age and, at least for women, personal connections to the transgender community. We discuss implications for the discourse surrounding transgender youth and the need for educating the public on the development of gender identity as well as the difference between gender identity and sexual orientation.

Jacob Rinkinen, ’11

Togunde, D., & Rinkinen, J. (2010). Homogeneous Faith, Ethnic Diversity: Desirable and Undesirable Traits in a Marital Partner in Nigeria. International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations, 10(1), 219-238.

Abstract: This paper draws on survey data gathered in 2007 from over 2000 students in six Nigerian universities to investigate desirable and undesirable traits in a future marital partner and how these traits vary by gender. Until now, there is no single study in the African context that examines how measures of Westernization and globalization impact qualities desired in a mate. Findings indicate that a vast majority of respondents prefer to select their future marital partner on their own rather than through an arranged marriage. Yet an overwhelming proportion of students are unwilling to marry someone without the consent of their parents. Respondents would prefer not to marry a partner who: does not possess a comparable university education; does not want to have children; lack domestic skills; are not good at cooking; does not believe in God; and practices a different religion. However, respondents are more willing to marry someone who: comes from different tribal/ethnic group or nationality; and has had previous sexual relations. Significant gender differences were found to exist in traits such as domestic skills, age difference between spouses, level of education, parental socio-economic status, and desire to have children. The conclusion is that a simultaneous operation of traditional and contemporary mating dynamics is taking place in Nigeria. The urban-based respondents seem to hold on to some aspects of African traditional culture and practices regarding desirable and undesirable traits in a marital partner. At the same time, the criteria for mate selection are being impacted by forces of Westernization and globalization, such as the internet and foreign mass media.

Jacob Rinkinen, 11

Togunde, D., Osagie, S., & Rinkinen, J. (2010). Dating Patterns and Practices in the Era of Globalization in Nigeria. Global Studies Journal, 3(2), 67-84.

Abstract: This paper seeks to understand dating patterns and practices among Nigerian undergraduate students in the era of globalization. Drawing on data collected in 2007 from over 2,000 students in six universities, the paper investigates the patterns, avenues, and motivations for dating; explores the onset of dating and determines whether or not respondents have ever dated or are currently dating a person of the same sex; and whether they utilize the Internet, newspapers/magazines, and television programs to find their romantic partners. Results reveal that both the classrooms and religious places of worship (churches and mosques) are the dominant avenues for finding mates. An overwhelming proportion (70.5%) indicated that their most important reason for dating is to find a future marital partner, followed by the desire to experience love and companionship (22.7%). Number of partners dated at a time, use of the Internet, newspapers/magazines and television as avenues for meeting partners vary significantly by respondents’ gender, religion, and place of birth. However, an overwhelming number of both males and females believe that males should pay for dating expenses although a lower proportion does so in practice. An insignificant percentage of respondents admitted to having same-sex relationships. Overall, the conclusion is that a cultural dualism exists as Western dating culture co-exists with traditional dating practices. The study provides an opportunity to uncover the extent to which modernization and globalization affect intimate relationships such as dating in a transitional society.

Jacob Rinkinen, ’11

Togunde, D., & Rinkinen, J. (2009). Agents of Change: Gender Differences in Migration Intentions among University Undergraduates in Nigeria. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 4(2), 175-190.

Abstract: This paper draws on surveys/interviews with 678 Nigerian university undergraduates to examine migration intentions and to detect if gender differences exist in reasons to migrate (or not) to the United States. This study is unique by focusing on future migration among university students, whose views and migration plans have been neglected in previous studies. As a departure from few previous scholarships in Africa, the paper introduces two new variables: perception of America as a land of socio-economic opportunities and whether respondents actively participate in the U.S. Visa Lottery Program. Findings indicate that a higher proportion of males than females cites better employment opportunities as reason for planning to move. However, more females than males mention security and better infrastructures available in America as motives for wanting to emigrate within the next five years. A higher proportion of women than men mention social and cultural ties with homeland and perception of racism in America as factors discouraging them from wanting to live in the United States; whereas, more men than women wanting to stay in Nigeria refer to patriotism/love of homeland as reasons. Perception of America as a land of opportunities and active participation in the U.S. Visa Lottery Program are among significant predictors of intentions to migrate. Findings have implications for policies aimed at improving quality of life in Nigeria, thereby, reducing emigration of “future leaders of tomorrow”.

Sarah Richardson, ’08

Togunde, D., & Richardson, S. (2008). Children’s Educational and Occupational Aspirations in Urban Nigeria: Implications for Policy Development. Research Journal of International Studies(7), 19-31.

Abstract: This paper uses data from interviews with 1535 children and their parents in urban Nigeria to examine children’s educational and occupational aspirations, and parents’ aspirations for their children. The findings indicate that an overwhelming majority of children plan to attain post secondary college/university qualifications and engage in professional occupations such as doctors, teachers, lawyers etc. Parents’ aspirations for children are similar to children’s goals. There is no difference between male and female children regarding educational desires or career aspirations. Also, there is no significant variation in parents’ aspirations for males and female children. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that several factors including parental socio-economic variables such as education, occupation, and income strongly determine children’s educational and occupational aspirations. These findings have implications for policies aimed at strengthening human capital formation and development in Nigeria.

Arielle Carter, ’08

Togunde, D., & Carter, A. (2008). In Their Own Words: Consequences of Child Labor in Urban Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 16(2), 173-181.

Abstract: This paper utilizes a 2002 datasets gathered through interviews with 1,535 children (aged 8-14 years) and their parents in urban Nigeria to examine the dangers and hazards reported by children who work in the urban economy. Findings indicate that slightly over half of interviewed child laborers are female; they begin work as early as age 7; and work for an average of 4 hours a day in order to contribute financially to the sustenance of the family; and to acquire training needed in future occupations. The children come mostly from large households of about 6 persons, where many of their parents have low levels of education, income, and occupational statuses. Furthermore, because the sample is urban based, children come mostly from nuclear and monogamous households. A significant percentage of working children are involved in motor accidents, face attempted kidnapping, rape, and sexual molestation. Many are also invited by gangsters to participate in robbery and anti-social activities. Others suffer from physical exhaustion and pains due to frequent long walks. These health problems have detrimental effects on children’s school attendance, punctuality, school performance, and leisure time. This study has policy implications for regulating child labor in Nigeria.

Michael Light, ’07

Light, M. T., & Togunde, D. (2008). The Mexican Immigration Debate: Assimilation and Public Policy. International Review of Modern Sociology, 34(2), 279-293.

Abstract: This paper navigates through the contentious issues surrounding the contemporary Mexican immigration debate. It argues that an effective and practical immigration policy reform requires an understanding of the empirical reality of Mexican immigration rather than sweeping generalizations that exist in the literature. It focuses on a dual task of presenting a review of U.S. current and past policies on immigration; and an examination of data measuring Mexican assimilation. Findings indicate that previous immigration policies laid the groundwork for the current immigration picture; and that the measures of assimilation clearly indicate that Mexican immigrants are acculturating to the United States. It concludes that the politicization of immigration would make a comprehensive immigration reform difficult to achieve, leading to future increase in Mexican illegal immigration flows.

Emily Weber

Togunde, D., & Weber, E. (2007). Parents’ Views, Children’s Voices: Intergenerational Analysis of Child Labor Persistence in Urban Nigeria. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 33(2), 285-301.

Abstract: This paper draws on interviews with 1535 parents and their children to provide a comprehensive analysis of the intergenerational dynamic of child labor persistence. From the perspectives of two generations, findings show that child labor is caused by poverty and the need to provide children with training for future careers. Furthermore, a significant number of parents had worked for their own parents while growing up, and this experience influenced their decision to ask their children to work. Moreover less than a third of the children plan to utilize the labor of their children when they become adults. Anxiety about financial future serves as a major reason for current child laborers to expect child labor to continue with the next generation. The remaining two-thirds who don’t plan to utilize child labor mentioned numerous hazards and dangers they counter as compelling reasons to end child labor. Interestingly, children of parents with higher socio-economic status are less likely to desire child labor continuation. Child labor practices may be quite resistant to change in a culture of poverty, however, because it carries tangible social and economic advantages in weak economies. Findings have policy implications for regulating child labor in Nigeria.

Sarah Richardson

Togunde, D., & Richardson, S. (2006). Household Size and Composition as Correlates of Child Labour in Urban Nigeria. Africa Development, 31(1), 50-65.

Abstract: This paper draws on interviews with 1,535 parents and their children to examine the relationship between child labour and various household variables in urban Nigeria, where child labour studies have been very limited. We provide a comprehensive overview of the household factors and residential dynamics through which child labour evolves. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness of the household production theory in explaining the socio-economic ramifications and household context of child labour. Our findings indicate that although child labour is mostly caused by poverty and the need to prepare children with skills and training useful for future occupations, the size of the household, number of children in the household, number of children contributing to the household income, child’s age, and age at which child started working – are all significantly and positively correlated with children’s hours of work. However, gender compositions of the children or of the household head and age of the household head have little or no relationship with children’s hours of work. Additionally, parental socio-economic status and family structure variables are associated with fewer hours of children’s work. The findings have implications for policies aimed at regulating child labour in Nigeria.

Arielle Carter

Togunde, D., & Carter, A. (2006). Socioeconomic Causes of Child Labor in Urban Nigeria. Journal of Children & Poverty, 12(1), 73-89.

Abstract: Drawing on interviews with 1,535 children (aged 8-14 years) in urban Nigeria, this study introduces two new measures of child labor—child’s ownership of business and control over earnings—to supplement the conventional use of a child’s hours of work and to create a wider understanding of child labor. It examines the causes of child labor and how these measures vary by parental socioeconomic status. Study of this relationship is important for a deeper understanding of the varying patterns of child labor, as well as for clarifying the cultural and economic socialization of children. Our findings show that children of parents with higher socioeconomic status are more likely to own businesses rather than assist parents. These children are also more likely to keep and spend their work earnings. Our results also offer strong support of the poverty hypothesis and the socialization theory, which are often used to explain child labor in developing societies. Furthermore, our results indicate that children of parents with higher levels of socioeconomic status work fewer hours. These findings have implications for regulating child labor and for alleviating its consequences.

Samantha Newman

Togunde, ‘D., & Newman, S. (2005). Value of Children, Child Labor, and Fertility Preferences in Urban Nigeria. West Africa Review(7).

Abstract: This paper examines the value of children as perceived by parents and explores the link between child labor and fertility preferences in urban Nigeria. We provide a unique perspective to utilize the Caldwell’s Wealth Flow Theory by considering the connection between current economic benefit of children and parent’s fertility intentions. This is a departure from previous studies that tend to relate future benefit of children at parent’s old age to current or future fertility behavior. Findings indicate that sons are valued for their future patriarchal status and their kinship role in continuing the family name. Daughters are more likely than sons to be relied upon for financial support at old age, and are cherished for their potential roles as future mothers. The results also suggest that labor contribution of children has become a central part of the fertility equation in urban areas. Indeed, a significant proportion of parents had children because of expected labor contribution of those children. Parents wanted more children because of the financial support of current children. Others would expect additional children yet to be born to contribute to the household income. Findings have implications for regulating child labor and fertility in Nigeria.

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