Posts tagged: Arielle Carter

Arielle Carter, ’08

Togunde, D., & Carter, A. (2008). In Their Own Words: Consequences of Child Labor in Urban Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 16(2), 173-181.

Abstract: This paper utilizes a 2002 datasets gathered through interviews with 1,535 children (aged 8-14 years) and their parents in urban Nigeria to examine the dangers and hazards reported by children who work in the urban economy. Findings indicate that slightly over half of interviewed child laborers are female; they begin work as early as age 7; and work for an average of 4 hours a day in order to contribute financially to the sustenance of the family; and to acquire training needed in future occupations. The children come mostly from large households of about 6 persons, where many of their parents have low levels of education, income, and occupational statuses. Furthermore, because the sample is urban based, children come mostly from nuclear and monogamous households. A significant percentage of working children are involved in motor accidents, face attempted kidnapping, rape, and sexual molestation. Many are also invited by gangsters to participate in robbery and anti-social activities. Others suffer from physical exhaustion and pains due to frequent long walks. These health problems have detrimental effects on children’s school attendance, punctuality, school performance, and leisure time. This study has policy implications for regulating child labor in Nigeria.

Arielle Carter

Togunde, D., & Carter, A. (2006). Socioeconomic Causes of Child Labor in Urban Nigeria. Journal of Children & Poverty, 12(1), 73-89.

Abstract: Drawing on interviews with 1,535 children (aged 8-14 years) in urban Nigeria, this study introduces two new measures of child labor—child’s ownership of business and control over earnings—to supplement the conventional use of a child’s hours of work and to create a wider understanding of child labor. It examines the causes of child labor and how these measures vary by parental socioeconomic status. Study of this relationship is important for a deeper understanding of the varying patterns of child labor, as well as for clarifying the cultural and economic socialization of children. Our findings show that children of parents with higher socioeconomic status are more likely to own businesses rather than assist parents. These children are also more likely to keep and spend their work earnings. Our results also offer strong support of the poverty hypothesis and the socialization theory, which are often used to explain child labor in developing societies. Furthermore, our results indicate that children of parents with higher levels of socioeconomic status work fewer hours. These findings have implications for regulating child labor and for alleviating its consequences.

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